[][src]Module bulletproofs::notes::inner_product_proof

This module contains notes on how and why the inner product proof protocol works.

Inner product proof

First, let’s observe that the prover can simply send vectors \({\mathbf{l}}(x)\) and \({\mathbf{r}}(x)\) and the verifier can check directly that the inner product \(t(x)\) and commitment \(P\) provided in the protocols 1 and 2 are correct. This will not leak information (the secret bits in these vectors are blinded), but will require us to transfer \(2n\) scalars between a prover and a verifier.

To minimize the bandwidth cost we will use the inner-product argument protocol which enables us to prove indirectly and with \(O(log(n))\) communication cost, that a given inner product \(t(x)\) and a commitment \(P\) are related as: \[ \begin{aligned} t(x) &= {\langle {\mathbf{l}}(x), {\mathbf{r}}(x) \rangle} \\ P &= {\langle {\mathbf{l}}(x), {\mathbf{G}} \rangle} + {\langle {\mathbf{r}}(x), {\mathbf{H}}' \rangle} \end{aligned} \] To make the presentation cleaner, we will change the notation to one used specifically in the inner product argument which is not to be confused with the notation in the rangeproof protocol: \[ \begin{aligned} {\mathbf{a}}, {\mathbf{b}} &\in {\mathbb Z_{p}^{n}}\\ {\mathbf{G}}, {\mathbf{H}} &\in {\mathbb G^{n}}\\ c &= {\langle {\mathbf{a}}, {\mathbf{b}} \rangle}\\ P &= {\langle {\mathbf{a}}, {\mathbf{G}} \rangle} + {\langle {\mathbf{b}}, {\mathbf{H}} \rangle} \end{aligned} \] Within the above definitions we need a proof of knowledge for the following relation: \[ \begin{aligned} P &{}={}&& {\langle {\mathbf{a}}, {\mathbf{G}} \rangle} + {\langle {\mathbf{b}}, {\mathbf{H}} \rangle} \hspace{0.2cm} \wedge\\ c &{}={}&& {\langle {\mathbf{a}}, {\mathbf{b}} \rangle} \end{aligned} \] Let’s combine these two statements into one equation using an indeterminate variable \(w \in {\mathbb Z_{p}^{\times}}\) and multiplying the second equation by an orthogonal generator \(B \in {\mathbb G}\): \[ \begin{aligned} P &{}={}&& {\langle {\mathbf{a}}, {\mathbf{G}} \rangle} + {\langle {\mathbf{b}}, {\mathbf{H}} \rangle}\\ &{}+{}&&\\ c w B &{}={}&& {\langle {\mathbf{a}}, {\mathbf{b}} \rangle} w B \end{aligned} \] Let’s simplify the resulting equation using the following definitions: \[ \begin{aligned} k &= \lg n \\ P' &= P + cwB \\ Q &= wB \end{aligned} \] The equation becomes: \[ P' = {\langle {\mathbf{a}}, {\mathbf{G}} \rangle} + {\langle {\mathbf{b}}, {\mathbf{H}} \rangle} + {\langle {\mathbf{a}}, {\mathbf{b}} \rangle} Q \] The combined equation is useful because it will allow us to compress each vector in half and arrive to the same form. By doing such compression \(\lg n\) times we will end up with an equation where both vectors are one-element long and we can simply transmit them to check the final equality directly.

If the prover can demonstrate that the above \(P'\) has such structure over generators \({\mathbf{G}}\), \({\mathbf{H}}\) and \(Q\) for all \(w \in {\mathbb Z_{p}^{*}}\), then the original \(P\) and \(c\) must satisfy the original relation \((P = {\langle {\mathbf{a}}, {\mathbf{G}} \rangle} + {\langle {\mathbf{b}}, {\mathbf{H}} \rangle} \wedge c = {\langle {\mathbf{a}}, {\mathbf{b}} \rangle})\).

Let’s introduce an indeterminate variable \(u_k \in {\mathbb Z_{p}^{\times}}\) and compress the vectors by adding the left and the right halves separated by the variable \(u_k\): \[ \begin{aligned} {\mathbf{a}}^{(k-1)} &= {\mathbf{a}}_{\operatorname{lo}} \cdot u_k + u^{-1}_k \cdot {\mathbf{a}}_{\operatorname{hi}} \\ {\mathbf{b}}^{(k-1)} &= {\mathbf{b}}_{\operatorname{lo}} \cdot u^{-1}_k + u_k \cdot {\mathbf{b}}_{\operatorname{hi}} \\ {\mathbf{G}}^{(k-1)} &= {\mathbf{G}}_{\operatorname{lo}} \cdot u^{-1}_k + u_k \cdot {\mathbf{G}}_{\operatorname{hi}} \\ {\mathbf{H}}^{(k-1)} &= {\mathbf{H}}_{\operatorname{lo}} \cdot u_k + u^{-1}_k \cdot {\mathbf{H}}_{\operatorname{hi}} \end{aligned} \] The powers of \(u_k\) are chosen so they cancel out in the inner products of interest as will be shown below.

Let \(P_k = P'\) and define \(P_{k-1}\) using the same equation as for \(P_k\), but using the compressed vectors: \[ P_{k-1} = {\langle {\mathbf{a}}^{(k-1)}, {\mathbf{G}}^{(k-1)} \rangle} + {\langle {\mathbf{b}}^{(k-1)}, {\mathbf{H}}^{(k-1)} \rangle} + {\langle {\mathbf{a}}^{(k-1)}, {\mathbf{b}}^{(k-1)} \rangle} \cdot Q \] Expanding it in terms of the original \({\mathbf{a}}\), \({\mathbf{b}}\), \({\mathbf{G}}\) and \({\mathbf{H}}\) gives: \[ \begin{aligned} P_{k-1} &{}={}& &{\langle {\mathbf{a}}_{\operatorname{lo}} \cdot u_k + u_k^{-1} \cdot {\mathbf{a}}_{\operatorname{hi}}, {\mathbf{G}}_{\operatorname{lo}} \cdot u^{-1}_k + u_k \cdot {\mathbf{G}}_{\operatorname{hi}} \rangle} + \\ && &{\langle {\mathbf{b}}_{\operatorname{lo}} \cdot u^{-1}_k + u_k \cdot {\mathbf{b}}_{\operatorname{hi}}, {\mathbf{H}}_{\operatorname{lo}} \cdot u_k + u^{-1}_k \cdot {\mathbf{H}}_{\operatorname{hi}} \rangle} + \\ && &{\langle {\mathbf{a}}_{\operatorname{lo}} \cdot u_k + u^{-1}_k \cdot {\mathbf{a}}_{\operatorname{hi}}, {\mathbf{b}}_{\operatorname{lo}} \cdot u^{-1}_k + u_k \cdot {\mathbf{b}}_{\operatorname{hi}} \rangle} \cdot Q \end{aligned} \] Breaking down in simpler products: \[ \begin{aligned} P_{k-1} &{}={}& &{\langle {\mathbf{a}}_{\operatorname{lo}}, {\mathbf{G}}_{\operatorname{lo}} \rangle} + {\langle {\mathbf{a}}_{\operatorname{hi}}, {\mathbf{G}}_{\operatorname{hi}} \rangle} &{}+{}& u_k^2 {\langle {\mathbf{a}}_{\operatorname{lo}}, {\mathbf{G}}_{\operatorname{hi}} \rangle} + u^{-2}_k {\langle {\mathbf{a}}_{\operatorname{hi}}, {\mathbf{G}}_{\operatorname{lo}} \rangle} + \\ && &{\langle {\mathbf{b}}_{\operatorname{lo}}, {\mathbf{H}}_{\operatorname{lo}} \rangle} + {\langle {\mathbf{b}}_{\operatorname{hi}}, {\mathbf{H}}_{\operatorname{hi}} \rangle} &{}+{}& u^2_k {\langle {\mathbf{b}}_{\operatorname{hi}}, {\mathbf{H}}_{\operatorname{lo}} \rangle} + u^{-2}_k {\langle {\mathbf{b}}_{\operatorname{lo}}, {\mathbf{H}}_{\operatorname{hi}} \rangle} + \\ && &({\langle {\mathbf{a}}_{\operatorname{lo}}, {\mathbf{b}}_{\operatorname{lo}} \rangle} + {\langle {\mathbf{a}}_{\operatorname{hi}}, {\mathbf{b}}_{\operatorname{hi}} \rangle})\cdot Q &{}+{}& (u^2_k {\langle {\mathbf{a}}_{\operatorname{lo}}, {\mathbf{b}}_{\operatorname{hi}} \rangle} + u^{-2}_k {\langle {\mathbf{a}}_{\operatorname{hi}}, {\mathbf{b}}_{\operatorname{lo}} \rangle}) \cdot Q \end{aligned} \] We now see that the left two columns in the above equation is the definition of \(P_k\), while various cross terms on the right are separated from \(P_k\) by an indeterminate variable \(u_k\). Let’s group all terms with \(u^2_k\) as \(L_k\) and all terms with \(u^{-2}_k\) as \(R_k\): \[ \begin{aligned} P_{k-1} &= P_k + u^2_k \cdot L_k + u^{-2}_k \cdot R_k\\ L_k &= {\langle {\mathbf{a}}_{\operatorname{lo}}, {\mathbf{G}}_{\operatorname{hi}} \rangle} + {\langle {\mathbf{b}}_{\operatorname{hi}}, {\mathbf{H}}_{\operatorname{lo}} \rangle} + {\langle {\mathbf{a}}_{\operatorname{lo}}, {\mathbf{b}}_{\operatorname{hi}} \rangle} \cdot Q\\ R_k &= {\langle {\mathbf{a}}_{\operatorname{hi}}, {\mathbf{G}}_{\operatorname{lo}} \rangle} + {\langle {\mathbf{b}}_{\operatorname{lo}}, {\mathbf{H}}_{\operatorname{hi}} \rangle} + {\langle {\mathbf{a}}_{\operatorname{hi}}, {\mathbf{b}}_{\operatorname{lo}} \rangle} \cdot Q \end{aligned} \] If the prover commits to \(L_k\) and \(R_k\) before \(u_k\) is randomly sampled, then if the statement about compressed vectors is proven to be true, it will follow that the original statement about uncompressed vectors is also true with an overwhelming probability.

We can compress the resulting statement about \(P_{k-1}\) using one more indeterminate variable \(u_{k-1}\) in the same way as we used \(u_k\) and arrive to even shorter vectors. We will continue doing so until we end up with vectors \({\mathbf{a}}^{(0)}, {\mathbf{b}}^{(0)}, {\mathbf{G}}^{(0)}, {\mathbf{H}}^{(0)}\), each containing one item, and \(P_0\) containing all accumulated cross-terms at each step: \[ \begin{aligned} P_0 &= a^{(0)}_0 G^{(0)}_0 + b^{(0)}_0 H^{(0)}_0 + a^{(0)}_0 b^{(0)}_0 Q\\ P_0 &= P_k + \sum_{j=1}^{k} \left( L_{j} u_{j}^{2} + u_{j}^{-2} R_{j} \right) \end{aligned} \]

Rewriting the above with the definitions \(P_k = P' = P + cwB\) and \(Q = wB\) gives the final statement: \[ P + c w B = a^{(0)}_0 G^{(0)}_0 + b^{(0)}_0 H^{(0)}_0 + a^{(0)}_0 b^{(0)}_0 wB - \sum_{j=1}^{k} \left( L_{j} u_{j}^{2} + u_{j}^{-2} R_{j} \right) \]

At this point the prover can transmit two scalars \(a^{(0)}_0\) and \(b^{(0)}_0\) to the verifier, so they check the final statement directly by computing both sides of the equation.

The resulting protocol has \(\lg n\) steps of compression where the prover sends a pair \((L_j,R_j)\) of points at each step \(j = k\dots1\). An additional and final step involves sending a pair of scalars \((a^{(0)}_0,b^{(0)}_0)\) and checking the final relation directly.