# 1.0.0[−][src]Struct curve25519_dalek::prelude::Vec

pub struct Vec<T> {
buf: RawVec<T, Global>,
len: usize,
}

A contiguous growable array type, written Vec<T> but pronounced 'vector'.

# Examples

let mut vec = Vec::new();
vec.push(1);
vec.push(2);

assert_eq!(vec.len(), 2);
assert_eq!(vec, 1);

assert_eq!(vec.pop(), Some(2));
assert_eq!(vec.len(), 1);

vec = 7;
assert_eq!(vec, 7);

vec.extend([1, 2, 3].iter().copied());

for x in &vec {
println!("{}", x);
}
assert_eq!(vec, [7, 1, 2, 3]);

The vec! macro is provided to make initialization more convenient:

let mut vec = vec![1, 2, 3];
vec.push(4);
assert_eq!(vec, [1, 2, 3, 4]);

It can also initialize each element of a Vec<T> with a given value. This may be more efficient than performing allocation and initialization in separate steps, especially when initializing a vector of zeros:

let vec = vec![0; 5];
assert_eq!(vec, [0, 0, 0, 0, 0]);

// The following is equivalent, but potentially slower:
let mut vec1 = Vec::with_capacity(5);
vec1.resize(5, 0);

Use a Vec<T> as an efficient stack:

let mut stack = Vec::new();

stack.push(1);
stack.push(2);
stack.push(3);

while let Some(top) = stack.pop() {
// Prints 3, 2, 1
println!("{}", top);
}

# Indexing

The Vec type allows to access values by index, because it implements the Index trait. An example will be more explicit:

let v = vec![0, 2, 4, 6];
println!("{}", v); // it will display '2'

However be careful: if you try to access an index which isn't in the Vec, your software will panic! You cannot do this:

let v = vec![0, 2, 4, 6];
println!("{}", v); // it will panic!

Use get and get_mut if you want to check whether the index is in the Vec.

# Slicing

A Vec can be mutable. Slices, on the other hand, are read-only objects. To get a slice, use &. Example:

fn read_slice(slice: &[usize]) {
// ...
}

let v = vec![0, 1];

// ... and that's all!
// you can also do it like this:
let x : &[usize] = &v;

In Rust, it's more common to pass slices as arguments rather than vectors when you just want to provide a read access. The same goes for String and &str.

# Capacity and reallocation

The capacity of a vector is the amount of space allocated for any future elements that will be added onto the vector. This is not to be confused with the length of a vector, which specifies the number of actual elements within the vector. If a vector's length exceeds its capacity, its capacity will automatically be increased, but its elements will have to be reallocated.

For example, a vector with capacity 10 and length 0 would be an empty vector with space for 10 more elements. Pushing 10 or fewer elements onto the vector will not change its capacity or cause reallocation to occur. However, if the vector's length is increased to 11, it will have to reallocate, which can be slow. For this reason, it is recommended to use Vec::with_capacity whenever possible to specify how big the vector is expected to get.

# Guarantees

Due to its incredibly fundamental nature, Vec makes a lot of guarantees about its design. This ensures that it's as low-overhead as possible in the general case, and can be correctly manipulated in primitive ways by unsafe code. Note that these guarantees refer to an unqualified Vec<T>. If additional type parameters are added (e.g., to support custom allocators), overriding their defaults may change the behavior.

Most fundamentally, Vec is and always will be a (pointer, capacity, length) triplet. No more, no less. The order of these fields is completely unspecified, and you should use the appropriate methods to modify these. The pointer will never be null, so this type is null-pointer-optimized.

However, the pointer may not actually point to allocated memory. In particular, if you construct a Vec with capacity 0 via Vec::new, vec![], Vec::with_capacity(0), or by calling shrink_to_fit on an empty Vec, it will not allocate memory. Similarly, if you store zero-sized types inside a Vec, it will not allocate space for them. Note that in this case the Vec may not report a capacity of 0. Vec will allocate if and only if mem::size_of::<T>() * capacity() > 0. In general, Vec's allocation details are very subtle — if you intend to allocate memory using a Vec and use it for something else (either to pass to unsafe code, or to build your own memory-backed collection), be sure to deallocate this memory by using from_raw_parts to recover the Vec and then dropping it.

If a Vec has allocated memory, then the memory it points to is on the heap (as defined by the allocator Rust is configured to use by default), and its pointer points to len initialized, contiguous elements in order (what you would see if you coerced it to a slice), followed by capacity-len logically uninitialized, contiguous elements.

Vec will never perform a "small optimization" where elements are actually stored on the stack for two reasons:

• It would make it more difficult for unsafe code to correctly manipulate a Vec. The contents of a Vec wouldn't have a stable address if it were only moved, and it would be more difficult to determine if a Vec had actually allocated memory.

• It would penalize the general case, incurring an additional branch on every access.

Vec will never automatically shrink itself, even if completely empty. This ensures no unnecessary allocations or deallocations occur. Emptying a Vec and then filling it back up to the same len should incur no calls to the allocator. If you wish to free up unused memory, use shrink_to_fit.

push and insert will never (re)allocate if the reported capacity is sufficient. push and insert will (re)allocate if len==capacity. That is, the reported capacity is completely accurate, and can be relied on. It can even be used to manually free the memory allocated by a Vec if desired. Bulk insertion methods may reallocate, even when not necessary.

Vec does not guarantee any particular growth strategy when reallocating when full, nor when reserve is called. The current strategy is basic and it may prove desirable to use a non-constant growth factor. Whatever strategy is used will of course guarantee O(1) amortized push.

vec![x; n], vec![a, b, c, d], and Vec::with_capacity(n), will all produce a Vec with exactly the requested capacity. If len==capacity, (as is the case for the vec! macro), then a Vec<T> can be converted to and from a Box<[T]> without reallocating or moving the elements.

Vec will not specifically overwrite any data that is removed from it, but also won't specifically preserve it. Its uninitialized memory is scratch space that it may use however it wants. It will generally just do whatever is most efficient or otherwise easy to implement. Do not rely on removed data to be erased for security purposes. Even if you drop a Vec, its buffer may simply be reused by another Vec. Even if you zero a Vec's memory first, that may not actually happen because the optimizer does not consider this a side-effect that must be preserved. There is one case which we will not break, however: using unsafe code to write to the excess capacity, and then increasing the length to match, is always valid.

Vec does not currently guarantee the order in which elements are dropped. The order has changed in the past and may change again.

## Fields

buf: RawVec<T, Global>len: usize

## Methods

### impl<T> Vec<T>[src]

#### ⓘImportant traits for Vec<u8>### Important traits for Vec<u8> impl Write for Vec<u8>pub const fn new() -> Vec<T>[src]

Constructs a new, empty Vec<T>.

The vector will not allocate until elements are pushed onto it.

# Examples

let mut vec: Vec<i32> = Vec::new();

#### ⓘImportant traits for Vec<u8>### Important traits for Vec<u8> impl Write for Vec<u8>pub fn with_capacity(capacity: usize) -> Vec<T>[src]

Constructs a new, empty Vec<T> with the specified capacity.

The vector will be able to hold exactly capacity elements without reallocating. If capacity is 0, the vector will not allocate.

It is important to note that although the returned vector has the capacity specified, the vector will have a zero length. For an explanation of the difference between length and capacity, see Capacity and reallocation.

# Examples

let mut vec = Vec::with_capacity(10);

// The vector contains no items, even though it has capacity for more
assert_eq!(vec.len(), 0);

// These are all done without reallocating...
for i in 0..10 {
vec.push(i);
}

// ...but this may make the vector reallocate
vec.push(11);

#### pub fn into_raw_parts(self) -> (*mut T, usize, usize)[src]

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (vec_into_raw_parts)

new API

Decomposes a Vec<T> into its raw components.

Returns the raw pointer to the underlying data, the length of the vector (in elements), and the allocated capacity of the data (in elements). These are the same arguments in the same order as the arguments to from_raw_parts.

After calling this function, the caller is responsible for the memory previously managed by the Vec. The only way to do this is to convert the raw pointer, length, and capacity back into a Vec with the from_raw_parts function, allowing the destructor to perform the cleanup.

# Examples

#![feature(vec_into_raw_parts)]
let v: Vec<i32> = vec![-1, 0, 1];

let (ptr, len, cap) = v.into_raw_parts();

let rebuilt = unsafe {
// We can now make changes to the components, such as
// transmuting the raw pointer to a compatible type.
let ptr = ptr as *mut u32;

Vec::from_raw_parts(ptr, len, cap)
};
assert_eq!(rebuilt, [4294967295, 0, 1]);

#### ⓘImportant traits for Vec<u8>### Important traits for Vec<u8> impl Write for Vec<u8>pub unsafe fn from_raw_parts(    ptr: *mut T,     length: usize,     capacity: usize) -> Vec<T>[src]

Creates a Vec<T> directly from the raw components of another vector.

# Safety

This is highly unsafe, due to the number of invariants that aren't checked:

• ptr needs to have been previously allocated via String/Vec<T> (at least, it's highly likely to be incorrect if it wasn't).
• ptr's T needs to have the same size and alignment as it was allocated with.
• length needs to be less than or equal to capacity.
• capacity needs to be the capacity that the pointer was allocated with.

Violating these may cause problems like corrupting the allocator's internal data structures. For example it is not safe to build a Vec<u8> from a pointer to a C char array with length size_t. It's also not safe to build one from a Vec<u16> and its length, because the allocator cares about the alignment, and these two types have different alignments. The buffer was allocated with alignment 2 (for u16), but after turning it into a Vec<u8> it'll be deallocated with alignment 1.

The ownership of ptr is effectively transferred to the Vec<T> which may then deallocate, reallocate or change the contents of memory pointed to by the pointer at will. Ensure that nothing else uses the pointer after calling this function.

# Examples

use std::ptr;
use std::mem;

let v = vec![1, 2, 3];

// Prevent running v's destructor so we are in complete control
// of the allocation.
let mut v = mem::ManuallyDrop::new(v);

// Pull out the various important pieces of information about v
let p = v.as_mut_ptr();
let len = v.len();
let cap = v.capacity();

unsafe {
// Overwrite memory with 4, 5, 6
for i in 0..len as isize {
ptr::write(p.offset(i), 4 + i);
}

// Put everything back together into a Vec
let rebuilt = Vec::from_raw_parts(p, len, cap);
assert_eq!(rebuilt, [4, 5, 6]);
}

#### pub fn capacity(&self) -> usize[src]

Returns the number of elements the vector can hold without reallocating.

# Examples

let vec: Vec<i32> = Vec::with_capacity(10);
assert_eq!(vec.capacity(), 10);

#### pub fn reserve(&mut self, additional: usize)[src]

Reserves capacity for at least additional more elements to be inserted in the given Vec<T>. The collection may reserve more space to avoid frequent reallocations. After calling reserve, capacity will be greater than or equal to self.len() + additional. Does nothing if capacity is already sufficient.

# Panics

Panics if the new capacity overflows usize.

# Examples

let mut vec = vec!;
vec.reserve(10);
assert!(vec.capacity() >= 11);

#### pub fn reserve_exact(&mut self, additional: usize)[src]

Reserves the minimum capacity for exactly additional more elements to be inserted in the given Vec<T>. After calling reserve_exact, capacity will be greater than or equal to self.len() + additional. Does nothing if the capacity is already sufficient.

Note that the allocator may give the collection more space than it requests. Therefore, capacity can not be relied upon to be precisely minimal. Prefer reserve if future insertions are expected.

# Panics

Panics if the new capacity overflows usize.

# Examples

let mut vec = vec!;
vec.reserve_exact(10);
assert!(vec.capacity() >= 11);

#### pub fn try_reserve(&mut self, additional: usize) -> Result<(), TryReserveError>[src]

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (try_reserve)

new API

Tries to reserve capacity for at least additional more elements to be inserted in the given Vec<T>. The collection may reserve more space to avoid frequent reallocations. After calling reserve, capacity will be greater than or equal to self.len() + additional. Does nothing if capacity is already sufficient.

# Errors

If the capacity overflows, or the allocator reports a failure, then an error is returned.

# Examples

#![feature(try_reserve)]
use std::collections::TryReserveError;

fn process_data(data: &[u32]) -> Result<Vec<u32>, TryReserveError> {
let mut output = Vec::new();

// Pre-reserve the memory, exiting if we can't
output.try_reserve(data.len())?;

// Now we know this can't OOM in the middle of our complex work
output.extend(data.iter().map(|&val| {
val * 2 + 5 // very complicated
}));

Ok(output)
}

#### pub fn try_reserve_exact(    &mut self,     additional: usize) -> Result<(), TryReserveError>[src]

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (try_reserve)

new API

Tries to reserves the minimum capacity for exactly additional more elements to be inserted in the given Vec<T>. After calling reserve_exact, capacity will be greater than or equal to self.len() + additional. Does nothing if the capacity is already sufficient.

Note that the allocator may give the collection more space than it requests. Therefore, capacity can not be relied upon to be precisely minimal. Prefer reserve if future insertions are expected.

# Errors

If the capacity overflows, or the allocator reports a failure, then an error is returned.

# Examples

#![feature(try_reserve)]
use std::collections::TryReserveError;

fn process_data(data: &[u32]) -> Result<Vec<u32>, TryReserveError> {
let mut output = Vec::new();

// Pre-reserve the memory, exiting if we can't
output.try_reserve(data.len())?;

// Now we know this can't OOM in the middle of our complex work
output.extend(data.iter().map(|&val| {
val * 2 + 5 // very complicated
}));

Ok(output)
}

#### pub fn shrink_to_fit(&mut self)[src]

Shrinks the capacity of the vector as much as possible.

It will drop down as close as possible to the length but the allocator may still inform the vector that there is space for a few more elements.

# Examples

let mut vec = Vec::with_capacity(10);
vec.extend([1, 2, 3].iter().cloned());
assert_eq!(vec.capacity(), 10);
vec.shrink_to_fit();
assert!(vec.capacity() >= 3);

#### pub fn shrink_to(&mut self, min_capacity: usize)[src]

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (shrink_to)

new API

Shrinks the capacity of the vector with a lower bound.

The capacity will remain at least as large as both the length and the supplied value.

# Panics

Panics if the current capacity is smaller than the supplied minimum capacity.

# Examples

#![feature(shrink_to)]
let mut vec = Vec::with_capacity(10);
vec.extend([1, 2, 3].iter().cloned());
assert_eq!(vec.capacity(), 10);
vec.shrink_to(4);
assert!(vec.capacity() >= 4);
vec.shrink_to(0);
assert!(vec.capacity() >= 3);

#### pub fn into_boxed_slice(self) -> Box<[T]>[src]

Converts the vector into Box<[T]>.

Note that this will drop any excess capacity.

# Examples

let v = vec![1, 2, 3];

let slice = v.into_boxed_slice();

Any excess capacity is removed:

let mut vec = Vec::with_capacity(10);
vec.extend([1, 2, 3].iter().cloned());

assert_eq!(vec.capacity(), 10);
let slice = vec.into_boxed_slice();
assert_eq!(slice.into_vec().capacity(), 3);

#### pub fn truncate(&mut self, len: usize)[src]

Shortens the vector, keeping the first len elements and dropping the rest.

If len is greater than the vector's current length, this has no effect.

The drain method can emulate truncate, but causes the excess elements to be returned instead of dropped.

Note that this method has no effect on the allocated capacity of the vector.

# Examples

Truncating a five element vector to two elements:

let mut vec = vec![1, 2, 3, 4, 5];
vec.truncate(2);
assert_eq!(vec, [1, 2]);

No truncation occurs when len is greater than the vector's current length:

let mut vec = vec![1, 2, 3];
vec.truncate(8);
assert_eq!(vec, [1, 2, 3]);

Truncating when len == 0 is equivalent to calling the clear method.

let mut vec = vec![1, 2, 3];
vec.truncate(0);
assert_eq!(vec, []);

#### ⓘImportant traits for &'_ [u8]### Important traits for &'_ [u8] impl<'_> Read for &'_ [u8]impl<'_> Write for &'_ mut [u8]pub fn as_slice(&self) -> &[T]1.7.0[src]

Extracts a slice containing the entire vector.

Equivalent to &s[..].

# Examples

use std::io::{self, Write};
let buffer = vec![1, 2, 3, 5, 8];
io::sink().write(buffer.as_slice()).unwrap();

#### ⓘImportant traits for &'_ [u8]### Important traits for &'_ [u8] impl<'_> Read for &'_ [u8]impl<'_> Write for &'_ mut [u8]pub fn as_mut_slice(&mut self) -> &mut [T]1.7.0[src]

Extracts a mutable slice of the entire vector.

Equivalent to &mut s[..].

# Examples

use std::io::{self, Read};
let mut buffer = vec![0; 3];
io::repeat(0b101).read_exact(buffer.as_mut_slice()).unwrap();

#### pub fn as_ptr(&self) -> *const T1.37.0[src]

Returns a raw pointer to the vector's buffer.

The caller must ensure that the vector outlives the pointer this function returns, or else it will end up pointing to garbage. Modifying the vector may cause its buffer to be reallocated, which would also make any pointers to it invalid.

The caller must also ensure that the memory the pointer (non-transitively) points to is never written to (except inside an UnsafeCell) using this pointer or any pointer derived from it. If you need to mutate the contents of the slice, use as_mut_ptr.

# Examples

let x = vec![1, 2, 4];
let x_ptr = x.as_ptr();

unsafe {
for i in 0..x.len() {
}
}

#### pub fn as_mut_ptr(&mut self) -> *mut T1.37.0[src]

Returns an unsafe mutable pointer to the vector's buffer.

The caller must ensure that the vector outlives the pointer this function returns, or else it will end up pointing to garbage. Modifying the vector may cause its buffer to be reallocated, which would also make any pointers to it invalid.

# Examples

// Allocate vector big enough for 4 elements.
let size = 4;
let mut x: Vec<i32> = Vec::with_capacity(size);
let x_ptr = x.as_mut_ptr();

// Initialize elements via raw pointer writes, then set length.
unsafe {
for i in 0..size {
}
x.set_len(size);
}
assert_eq!(&*x, &[0,1,2,3]);

#### pub unsafe fn set_len(&mut self, new_len: usize)[src]

Forces the length of the vector to new_len.

This is a low-level operation that maintains none of the normal invariants of the type. Normally changing the length of a vector is done using one of the safe operations instead, such as truncate, resize, extend, or clear.

# Safety

• new_len must be less than or equal to capacity().
• The elements at old_len..new_len must be initialized.

# Examples

This method can be useful for situations in which the vector is serving as a buffer for other code, particularly over FFI:

pub fn get_dictionary(&self) -> Option<Vec<u8>> {
// Per the FFI method's docs, "32768 bytes is always enough".
let mut dict = Vec::with_capacity(32_768);
let mut dict_length = 0;
// SAFETY: When deflateGetDictionary returns Z_OK, it holds that:
// 1. dict_length elements were initialized.
// 2. dict_length <= the capacity (32_768)
// which makes set_len safe to call.
unsafe {
// Make the FFI call...
let r = deflateGetDictionary(self.strm, dict.as_mut_ptr(), &mut dict_length);
if r == Z_OK {
// ...and update the length to what was initialized.
dict.set_len(dict_length);
Some(dict)
} else {
None
}
}
}

While the following example is sound, there is a memory leak since the inner vectors were not freed prior to the set_len call:

let mut vec = vec![vec![1, 0, 0],
vec![0, 1, 0],
vec![0, 0, 1]];
// SAFETY:
// 1. old_len..0 is empty so no elements need to be initialized.
// 2. 0 <= capacity always holds whatever capacity is.
unsafe {
vec.set_len(0);
}

Normally, here, one would use clear instead to correctly drop the contents and thus not leak memory.

#### pub fn swap_remove(&mut self, index: usize) -> T[src]

Removes an element from the vector and returns it.

The removed element is replaced by the last element of the vector.

This does not preserve ordering, but is O(1).

# Panics

Panics if index is out of bounds.

# Examples

let mut v = vec!["foo", "bar", "baz", "qux"];

assert_eq!(v.swap_remove(1), "bar");
assert_eq!(v, ["foo", "qux", "baz"]);

assert_eq!(v.swap_remove(0), "foo");
assert_eq!(v, ["baz", "qux"]);

#### pub fn insert(&mut self, index: usize, element: T)[src]

Inserts an element at position index within the vector, shifting all elements after it to the right.

# Panics

Panics if index > len.

# Examples

let mut vec = vec![1, 2, 3];
vec.insert(1, 4);
assert_eq!(vec, [1, 4, 2, 3]);
vec.insert(4, 5);
assert_eq!(vec, [1, 4, 2, 3, 5]);

#### pub fn remove(&mut self, index: usize) -> T[src]

Removes and returns the element at position index within the vector, shifting all elements after it to the left.

# Panics

Panics if index is out of bounds.

# Examples

let mut v = vec![1, 2, 3];
assert_eq!(v.remove(1), 2);
assert_eq!(v, [1, 3]);

#### pub fn retain<F>(&mut self, f: F) where    F: FnMut(&T) -> bool, [src]

Retains only the elements specified by the predicate.

In other words, remove all elements e such that f(&e) returns false. This method operates in place, visiting each element exactly once in the original order, and preserves the order of the retained elements.

# Examples

let mut vec = vec![1, 2, 3, 4];
vec.retain(|&x| x%2 == 0);
assert_eq!(vec, [2, 4]);

The exact order may be useful for tracking external state, like an index.

let mut vec = vec![1, 2, 3, 4, 5];
let keep = [false, true, true, false, true];
let mut i = 0;
vec.retain(|_| (keep[i], i += 1).0);
assert_eq!(vec, [2, 3, 5]);

#### pub fn dedup_by_key<F, K>(&mut self, key: F) where    F: FnMut(&mut T) -> K,    K: PartialEq<K>, 1.16.0[src]

Removes all but the first of consecutive elements in the vector that resolve to the same key.

If the vector is sorted, this removes all duplicates.

# Examples

let mut vec = vec![10, 20, 21, 30, 20];

vec.dedup_by_key(|i| *i / 10);

assert_eq!(vec, [10, 20, 30, 20]);

#### pub fn dedup_by<F>(&mut self, same_bucket: F) where    F: FnMut(&mut T, &mut T) -> bool, 1.16.0[src]

Removes all but the first of consecutive elements in the vector satisfying a given equality relation.

The same_bucket function is passed references to two elements from the vector and must determine if the elements compare equal. The elements are passed in opposite order from their order in the slice, so if same_bucket(a, b) returns true, a is removed.

If the vector is sorted, this removes all duplicates.

# Examples

let mut vec = vec!["foo", "bar", "Bar", "baz", "bar"];

vec.dedup_by(|a, b| a.eq_ignore_ascii_case(b));

assert_eq!(vec, ["foo", "bar", "baz", "bar"]);

#### pub fn push(&mut self, value: T)[src]

Appends an element to the back of a collection.

# Panics

Panics if the number of elements in the vector overflows a usize.

# Examples

let mut vec = vec![1, 2];
vec.push(3);
assert_eq!(vec, [1, 2, 3]);

#### pub fn pop(&mut self) -> Option<T>[src]

Removes the last element from a vector and returns it, or None if it is empty.

# Examples

let mut vec = vec![1, 2, 3];
assert_eq!(vec.pop(), Some(3));
assert_eq!(vec, [1, 2]);

#### pub fn append(&mut self, other: &mut Vec<T>)1.4.0[src]

Moves all the elements of other into Self, leaving other empty.

# Panics

Panics if the number of elements in the vector overflows a usize.

# Examples

let mut vec = vec![1, 2, 3];
let mut vec2 = vec![4, 5, 6];
vec.append(&mut vec2);
assert_eq!(vec, [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]);
assert_eq!(vec2, []);

#### pub fn drain<R>(&mut self, range: R) -> Drain<T> where    R: RangeBounds<usize>, 1.6.0[src]

Creates a draining iterator that removes the specified range in the vector and yields the removed items.

Note 1: The element range is removed even if the iterator is only partially consumed or not consumed at all.

Note 2: It is unspecified how many elements are removed from the vector if the Drain value is leaked.

# Panics

Panics if the starting point is greater than the end point or if the end point is greater than the length of the vector.

# Examples

let mut v = vec![1, 2, 3];
let u: Vec<_> = v.drain(1..).collect();
assert_eq!(v, &);
assert_eq!(u, &[2, 3]);

// A full range clears the vector
v.drain(..);
assert_eq!(v, &[]);

#### pub fn clear(&mut self)[src]

Clears the vector, removing all values.

Note that this method has no effect on the allocated capacity of the vector.

# Examples

let mut v = vec![1, 2, 3];

v.clear();

assert!(v.is_empty());

#### pub fn len(&self) -> usize[src]

Returns the number of elements in the vector, also referred to as its 'length'.

# Examples

let a = vec![1, 2, 3];
assert_eq!(a.len(), 3);

#### pub fn is_empty(&self) -> bool[src]

Returns true if the vector contains no elements.

# Examples

let mut v = Vec::new();
assert!(v.is_empty());

v.push(1);
assert!(!v.is_empty());

#### ⓘImportant traits for Vec<u8>### Important traits for Vec<u8> impl Write for Vec<u8>pub fn split_off(&mut self, at: usize) -> Vec<T>1.4.0[src]

Splits the collection into two at the given index.

Returns a newly allocated vector containing the elements in the range [at, len). After the call, the original vector will be left containing the elements [0, at) with its previous capacity unchanged.

# Panics

Panics if at > len.

# Examples

let mut vec = vec![1,2,3];
let vec2 = vec.split_off(1);
assert_eq!(vec, );
assert_eq!(vec2, [2, 3]);

#### pub fn resize_with<F>(&mut self, new_len: usize, f: F) where    F: FnMut() -> T, 1.33.0[src]

Resizes the Vec in-place so that len is equal to new_len.

If new_len is greater than len, the Vec is extended by the difference, with each additional slot filled with the result of calling the closure f. The return values from f will end up in the Vec in the order they have been generated.

If new_len is less than len, the Vec is simply truncated.

This method uses a closure to create new values on every push. If you'd rather Clone a given value, use resize. If you want to use the Default trait to generate values, you can pass Default::default() as the second argument.

# Examples

let mut vec = vec![1, 2, 3];
vec.resize_with(5, Default::default);
assert_eq!(vec, [1, 2, 3, 0, 0]);

let mut vec = vec![];
let mut p = 1;
vec.resize_with(4, || { p *= 2; p });
assert_eq!(vec, [2, 4, 8, 16]);

#### ⓘImportant traits for &'_ [u8]### Important traits for &'_ [u8] impl<'_> Read for &'_ [u8]impl<'_> Write for &'_ mut [u8]pub fn leak<'a>(vec: Vec<T>) -> &'a mut [T] where    T: 'a, [src]

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (vec_leak)

Consumes and leaks the Vec, returning a mutable reference to the contents, &'a mut [T]. Note that the type T must outlive the chosen lifetime 'a. If the type has only static references, or none at all, then this may be chosen to be 'static.

This function is similar to the leak function on Box.

This function is mainly useful for data that lives for the remainder of the program's life. Dropping the returned reference will cause a memory leak.

# Examples

Simple usage:

#![feature(vec_leak)]

let x = vec![1, 2, 3];
let static_ref: &'static mut [usize] = Vec::leak(x);
static_ref += 1;
assert_eq!(static_ref, &[2, 2, 3]);

### impl<T> Vec<T> where    T: Clone, [src]

#### pub fn resize(&mut self, new_len: usize, value: T)1.5.0[src]

Resizes the Vec in-place so that len is equal to new_len.

If new_len is greater than len, the Vec is extended by the difference, with each additional slot filled with value. If new_len is less than len, the Vec is simply truncated.

This method requires Clone to be able clone the passed value. If you need more flexibility (or want to rely on Default instead of Clone), use resize_with.

# Examples

let mut vec = vec!["hello"];
vec.resize(3, "world");
assert_eq!(vec, ["hello", "world", "world"]);

let mut vec = vec![1, 2, 3, 4];
vec.resize(2, 0);
assert_eq!(vec, [1, 2]);

#### pub fn extend_from_slice(&mut self, other: &[T])1.6.0[src]

Clones and appends all elements in a slice to the Vec.

Iterates over the slice other, clones each element, and then appends it to this Vec. The other vector is traversed in-order.

Note that this function is same as extend except that it is specialized to work with slices instead. If and when Rust gets specialization this function will likely be deprecated (but still available).

# Examples

let mut vec = vec!;
vec.extend_from_slice(&[2, 3, 4]);
assert_eq!(vec, [1, 2, 3, 4]);

### impl<T> Vec<T> where    T: Default, [src]

#### pub fn resize_default(&mut self, new_len: usize)[src]

Deprecated since 1.33.0:

This is moving towards being removed in favor of .resize_with(Default::default). If you disagree, please comment in the tracking issue.

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (vec_resize_default)

Resizes the Vec in-place so that len is equal to new_len.

If new_len is greater than len, the Vec is extended by the difference, with each additional slot filled with Default::default(). If new_len is less than len, the Vec is simply truncated.

This method uses Default to create new values on every push. If you'd rather Clone a given value, use resize.

# Examples

#![feature(vec_resize_default)]

let mut vec = vec![1, 2, 3];
vec.resize_default(5);
assert_eq!(vec, [1, 2, 3, 0, 0]);

let mut vec = vec![1, 2, 3, 4];
vec.resize_default(2);
assert_eq!(vec, [1, 2]);

### impl<T> Vec<T> where    T: PartialEq<T>, [src]

#### pub fn dedup(&mut self)[src]

Removes consecutive repeated elements in the vector according to the PartialEq trait implementation.

If the vector is sorted, this removes all duplicates.

# Examples

let mut vec = vec![1, 2, 2, 3, 2];

vec.dedup();

assert_eq!(vec, [1, 2, 3, 2]);

#### pub fn remove_item(&mut self, item: &T) -> Option<T>[src]

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (vec_remove_item)

Removes the first instance of item from the vector if the item exists.

# Examples

let mut vec = vec![1, 2, 3, 1];

vec.remove_item(&1);

assert_eq!(vec, vec![2, 3, 1]);

### impl<T> Vec<T>[src]

#### pub fn splice<R, I>(    &mut self,     range: R,     replace_with: I) -> Splice<<I as IntoIterator>::IntoIter> where    I: IntoIterator<Item = T>,    R: RangeBounds<usize>, 1.21.0[src]

Creates a splicing iterator that replaces the specified range in the vector with the given replace_with iterator and yields the removed items. replace_with does not need to be the same length as range.

The element range is removed even if the iterator is not consumed until the end.

It is unspecified how many elements are removed from the vector if the Splice value is leaked.

The input iterator replace_with is only consumed when the Splice value is dropped.

This is optimal if:

• The tail (elements in the vector after range) is empty,
• or replace_with yields fewer elements than range’s length
• or the lower bound of its size_hint() is exact.

Otherwise, a temporary vector is allocated and the tail is moved twice.

# Panics

Panics if the starting point is greater than the end point or if the end point is greater than the length of the vector.

# Examples

let mut v = vec![1, 2, 3];
let new = [7, 8];
let u: Vec<_> = v.splice(..2, new.iter().cloned()).collect();
assert_eq!(v, &[7, 8, 3]);
assert_eq!(u, &[1, 2]);

#### pub fn drain_filter<F>(&mut self, filter: F) -> DrainFilter<T, F> where    F: FnMut(&mut T) -> bool, [src]

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (drain_filter)

Creates an iterator which uses a closure to determine if an element should be removed.

If the closure returns true, then the element is removed and yielded. If the closure returns false, the element will remain in the vector and will not be yielded by the iterator.

Using this method is equivalent to the following code:

let mut i = 0;
while i != vec.len() {
if some_predicate(&mut vec[i]) {
let val = vec.remove(i);
} else {
i += 1;
}
}


But drain_filter is easier to use. drain_filter is also more efficient, because it can backshift the elements of the array in bulk.

Note that drain_filter also lets you mutate every element in the filter closure, regardless of whether you choose to keep or remove it.

# Examples

Splitting an array into evens and odds, reusing the original allocation:

#![feature(drain_filter)]
let mut numbers = vec![1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 9, 11, 13, 14, 15];

let evens = numbers.drain_filter(|x| *x % 2 == 0).collect::<Vec<_>>();
let odds = numbers;

assert_eq!(evens, vec![2, 4, 6, 8, 14]);
assert_eq!(odds, vec![1, 3, 5, 9, 11, 13, 15]);

## Methods from Deref<Target = [T]>

#### pub const fn len(&self) -> usize[src]

Returns the number of elements in the slice.

# Examples

let a = [1, 2, 3];
assert_eq!(a.len(), 3);

#### pub const fn is_empty(&self) -> bool[src]

Returns true if the slice has a length of 0.

# Examples

let a = [1, 2, 3];
assert!(!a.is_empty());

#### pub fn first(&self) -> Option<&T>[src]

Returns the first element of the slice, or None if it is empty.

# Examples

let v = [10, 40, 30];
assert_eq!(Some(&10), v.first());

let w: &[i32] = &[];
assert_eq!(None, w.first());

#### pub fn first_mut(&mut self) -> Option<&mut T>[src]

Returns a mutable pointer to the first element of the slice, or None if it is empty.

# Examples

let x = &mut [0, 1, 2];

if let Some(first) = x.first_mut() {
*first = 5;
}
assert_eq!(x, &[5, 1, 2]);

#### pub fn split_first(&self) -> Option<(&T, &[T])>1.5.0[src]

Returns the first and all the rest of the elements of the slice, or None if it is empty.

# Examples

let x = &[0, 1, 2];

if let Some((first, elements)) = x.split_first() {
assert_eq!(first, &0);
assert_eq!(elements, &[1, 2]);
}

#### pub fn split_first_mut(&mut self) -> Option<(&mut T, &mut [T])>1.5.0[src]

Returns the first and all the rest of the elements of the slice, or None if it is empty.

# Examples

let x = &mut [0, 1, 2];

if let Some((first, elements)) = x.split_first_mut() {
*first = 3;
elements = 4;
elements = 5;
}
assert_eq!(x, &[3, 4, 5]);

#### pub fn split_last(&self) -> Option<(&T, &[T])>1.5.0[src]

Returns the last and all the rest of the elements of the slice, or None if it is empty.

# Examples

let x = &[0, 1, 2];

if let Some((last, elements)) = x.split_last() {
assert_eq!(last, &2);
assert_eq!(elements, &[0, 1]);
}

#### pub fn split_last_mut(&mut self) -> Option<(&mut T, &mut [T])>1.5.0[src]

Returns the last and all the rest of the elements of the slice, or None if it is empty.

# Examples

let x = &mut [0, 1, 2];

if let Some((last, elements)) = x.split_last_mut() {
*last = 3;
elements = 4;
elements = 5;
}
assert_eq!(x, &[4, 5, 3]);

#### pub fn last(&self) -> Option<&T>[src]

Returns the last element of the slice, or None if it is empty.

# Examples

let v = [10, 40, 30];
assert_eq!(Some(&30), v.last());

let w: &[i32] = &[];
assert_eq!(None, w.last());

#### pub fn last_mut(&mut self) -> Option<&mut T>[src]

Returns a mutable pointer to the last item in the slice.

# Examples

let x = &mut [0, 1, 2];

if let Some(last) = x.last_mut() {
*last = 10;
}
assert_eq!(x, &[0, 1, 10]);

#### pub fn get<I>(&self, index: I) -> Option<&<I as SliceIndex<[T]>>::Output> where    I: SliceIndex<[T]>, [src]

Returns a reference to an element or subslice depending on the type of index.

• If given a position, returns a reference to the element at that position or None if out of bounds.
• If given a range, returns the subslice corresponding to that range, or None if out of bounds.

# Examples

let v = [10, 40, 30];
assert_eq!(Some(&40), v.get(1));
assert_eq!(Some(&[10, 40][..]), v.get(0..2));
assert_eq!(None, v.get(3));
assert_eq!(None, v.get(0..4));

#### pub fn get_mut<I>(    &mut self,     index: I) -> Option<&mut <I as SliceIndex<[T]>>::Output> where    I: SliceIndex<[T]>, [src]

Returns a mutable reference to an element or subslice depending on the type of index (see get) or None if the index is out of bounds.

# Examples

let x = &mut [0, 1, 2];

if let Some(elem) = x.get_mut(1) {
*elem = 42;
}
assert_eq!(x, &[0, 42, 2]);

#### pub unsafe fn get_unchecked<I>(    &self,     index: I) -> &<I as SliceIndex<[T]>>::Output where    I: SliceIndex<[T]>, [src]

Returns a reference to an element or subslice, without doing bounds checking.

This is generally not recommended, use with caution! Calling this method with an out-of-bounds index is undefined behavior even if the resulting reference is not used. For a safe alternative see get.

# Examples

let x = &[1, 2, 4];

unsafe {
assert_eq!(x.get_unchecked(1), &2);
}

#### pub unsafe fn get_unchecked_mut<I>(    &mut self,     index: I) -> &mut <I as SliceIndex<[T]>>::Output where    I: SliceIndex<[T]>, [src]

Returns a mutable reference to an element or subslice, without doing bounds checking.

This is generally not recommended, use with caution! Calling this method with an out-of-bounds index is undefined behavior even if the resulting reference is not used. For a safe alternative see get_mut.

# Examples

let x = &mut [1, 2, 4];

unsafe {
let elem = x.get_unchecked_mut(1);
*elem = 13;
}
assert_eq!(x, &[1, 13, 4]);

#### pub const fn as_ptr(&self) -> *const T[src]

Returns a raw pointer to the slice's buffer.

The caller must ensure that the slice outlives the pointer this function returns, or else it will end up pointing to garbage.

The caller must also ensure that the memory the pointer (non-transitively) points to is never written to (except inside an UnsafeCell) using this pointer or any pointer derived from it. If you need to mutate the contents of the slice, use as_mut_ptr.

Modifying the container referenced by this slice may cause its buffer to be reallocated, which would also make any pointers to it invalid.

# Examples

let x = &[1, 2, 4];
let x_ptr = x.as_ptr();

unsafe {
for i in 0..x.len() {
}
}

#### pub fn as_mut_ptr(&mut self) -> *mut T[src]

Returns an unsafe mutable pointer to the slice's buffer.

The caller must ensure that the slice outlives the pointer this function returns, or else it will end up pointing to garbage.

Modifying the container referenced by this slice may cause its buffer to be reallocated, which would also make any pointers to it invalid.

# Examples

let x = &mut [1, 2, 4];
let x_ptr = x.as_mut_ptr();

unsafe {
for i in 0..x.len() {
}
}
assert_eq!(x, &[3, 4, 6]);

#### pub fn as_ptr_range(&self) -> Range<*const T>[src]

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (slice_ptr_range)

Returns the two raw pointers spanning the slice.

The returned range is half-open, which means that the end pointer points one past the last element of the slice. This way, an empty slice is represented by two equal pointers, and the difference between the two pointers represents the size of the size.

See as_ptr for warnings on using these pointers. The end pointer requires extra caution, as it does not point to a valid element in the slice.

This function is useful for interacting with foreign interfaces which use two pointers to refer to a range of elements in memory, as is common in C++.

It can also be useful to check if a pointer to an element refers to an element of this slice:

#![feature(slice_ptr_range)]

let a = [1, 2, 3];
let x = &a as *const _;
let y = &5 as *const _;

assert!(a.as_ptr_range().contains(&x));
assert!(!a.as_ptr_range().contains(&y));

#### pub fn as_mut_ptr_range(&mut self) -> Range<*mut T>[src]

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (slice_ptr_range)

Returns the two unsafe mutable pointers spanning the slice.

The returned range is half-open, which means that the end pointer points one past the last element of the slice. This way, an empty slice is represented by two equal pointers, and the difference between the two pointers represents the size of the size.

See as_mut_ptr for warnings on using these pointers. The end pointer requires extra caution, as it does not point to a valid element in the slice.

This function is useful for interacting with foreign interfaces which use two pointers to refer to a range of elements in memory, as is common in C++.

#### pub fn swap(&mut self, a: usize, b: usize)[src]

Swaps two elements in the slice.

# Arguments

• a - The index of the first element
• b - The index of the second element

# Panics

Panics if a or b are out of bounds.

# Examples

let mut v = ["a", "b", "c", "d"];
v.swap(1, 3);
assert!(v == ["a", "d", "c", "b"]);

#### pub fn reverse(&mut self)[src]

Reverses the order of elements in the slice, in place.

# Examples

let mut v = [1, 2, 3];
v.reverse();
assert!(v == [3, 2, 1]);

#### pub fn iter(&self) -> Iter<T>[src]

Returns an iterator over the slice.

# Examples

let x = &[1, 2, 4];
let mut iterator = x.iter();

assert_eq!(iterator.next(), Some(&1));
assert_eq!(iterator.next(), Some(&2));
assert_eq!(iterator.next(), Some(&4));
assert_eq!(iterator.next(), None);

#### pub fn iter_mut(&mut self) -> IterMut<T>[src]

Returns an iterator that allows modifying each value.

# Examples

let x = &mut [1, 2, 4];
for elem in x.iter_mut() {
*elem += 2;
}
assert_eq!(x, &[3, 4, 6]);

#### pub fn windows(&self, size: usize) -> Windows<T>[src]

Returns an iterator over all contiguous windows of length size. The windows overlap. If the slice is shorter than size, the iterator returns no values.

# Panics

Panics if size is 0.

# Examples

let slice = ['r', 'u', 's', 't'];
let mut iter = slice.windows(2);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &['r', 'u']);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &['u', 's']);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &['s', 't']);
assert!(iter.next().is_none());

If the slice is shorter than size:

let slice = ['f', 'o', 'o'];
let mut iter = slice.windows(4);
assert!(iter.next().is_none());

#### pub fn chunks(&self, chunk_size: usize) -> Chunks<T>[src]

Returns an iterator over chunk_size elements of the slice at a time, starting at the beginning of the slice.

The chunks are slices and do not overlap. If chunk_size does not divide the length of the slice, then the last chunk will not have length chunk_size.

See chunks_exact for a variant of this iterator that returns chunks of always exactly chunk_size elements, and rchunks for the same iterator but starting at the end of the slice.

# Panics

Panics if chunk_size is 0.

# Examples

let slice = ['l', 'o', 'r', 'e', 'm'];
let mut iter = slice.chunks(2);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &['l', 'o']);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &['r', 'e']);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &['m']);
assert!(iter.next().is_none());

#### pub fn chunks_mut(&mut self, chunk_size: usize) -> ChunksMut<T>[src]

Returns an iterator over chunk_size elements of the slice at a time, starting at the beginning of the slice.

The chunks are mutable slices, and do not overlap. If chunk_size does not divide the length of the slice, then the last chunk will not have length chunk_size.

See chunks_exact_mut for a variant of this iterator that returns chunks of always exactly chunk_size elements, and rchunks_mut for the same iterator but starting at the end of the slice.

# Panics

Panics if chunk_size is 0.

# Examples

let v = &mut [0, 0, 0, 0, 0];
let mut count = 1;

for chunk in v.chunks_mut(2) {
for elem in chunk.iter_mut() {
*elem += count;
}
count += 1;
}
assert_eq!(v, &[1, 1, 2, 2, 3]);

#### pub fn chunks_exact(&self, chunk_size: usize) -> ChunksExact<T>1.31.0[src]

Returns an iterator over chunk_size elements of the slice at a time, starting at the beginning of the slice.

The chunks are slices and do not overlap. If chunk_size does not divide the length of the slice, then the last up to chunk_size-1 elements will be omitted and can be retrieved from the remainder function of the iterator.

Due to each chunk having exactly chunk_size elements, the compiler can often optimize the resulting code better than in the case of chunks.

See chunks for a variant of this iterator that also returns the remainder as a smaller chunk, and rchunks_exact for the same iterator but starting at the end of the slice.

# Panics

Panics if chunk_size is 0.

# Examples

let slice = ['l', 'o', 'r', 'e', 'm'];
let mut iter = slice.chunks_exact(2);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &['l', 'o']);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &['r', 'e']);
assert!(iter.next().is_none());
assert_eq!(iter.remainder(), &['m']);

#### pub fn chunks_exact_mut(&mut self, chunk_size: usize) -> ChunksExactMut<T>1.31.0[src]

Returns an iterator over chunk_size elements of the slice at a time, starting at the beginning of the slice.

The chunks are mutable slices, and do not overlap. If chunk_size does not divide the length of the slice, then the last up to chunk_size-1 elements will be omitted and can be retrieved from the into_remainder function of the iterator.

Due to each chunk having exactly chunk_size elements, the compiler can often optimize the resulting code better than in the case of chunks_mut.

See chunks_mut for a variant of this iterator that also returns the remainder as a smaller chunk, and rchunks_exact_mut for the same iterator but starting at the end of the slice.

# Panics

Panics if chunk_size is 0.

# Examples

let v = &mut [0, 0, 0, 0, 0];
let mut count = 1;

for chunk in v.chunks_exact_mut(2) {
for elem in chunk.iter_mut() {
*elem += count;
}
count += 1;
}
assert_eq!(v, &[1, 1, 2, 2, 0]);

#### pub fn rchunks(&self, chunk_size: usize) -> RChunks<T>1.31.0[src]

Returns an iterator over chunk_size elements of the slice at a time, starting at the end of the slice.

The chunks are slices and do not overlap. If chunk_size does not divide the length of the slice, then the last chunk will not have length chunk_size.

See rchunks_exact for a variant of this iterator that returns chunks of always exactly chunk_size elements, and chunks for the same iterator but starting at the beginning of the slice.

# Panics

Panics if chunk_size is 0.

# Examples

let slice = ['l', 'o', 'r', 'e', 'm'];
let mut iter = slice.rchunks(2);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &['e', 'm']);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &['o', 'r']);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &['l']);
assert!(iter.next().is_none());

#### pub fn rchunks_mut(&mut self, chunk_size: usize) -> RChunksMut<T>1.31.0[src]

Returns an iterator over chunk_size elements of the slice at a time, starting at the end of the slice.

The chunks are mutable slices, and do not overlap. If chunk_size does not divide the length of the slice, then the last chunk will not have length chunk_size.

See rchunks_exact_mut for a variant of this iterator that returns chunks of always exactly chunk_size elements, and chunks_mut for the same iterator but starting at the beginning of the slice.

# Panics

Panics if chunk_size is 0.

# Examples

let v = &mut [0, 0, 0, 0, 0];
let mut count = 1;

for chunk in v.rchunks_mut(2) {
for elem in chunk.iter_mut() {
*elem += count;
}
count += 1;
}
assert_eq!(v, &[3, 2, 2, 1, 1]);

#### pub fn rchunks_exact(&self, chunk_size: usize) -> RChunksExact<T>1.31.0[src]

Returns an iterator over chunk_size elements of the slice at a time, starting at the end of the slice.

The chunks are slices and do not overlap. If chunk_size does not divide the length of the slice, then the last up to chunk_size-1 elements will be omitted and can be retrieved from the remainder function of the iterator.

Due to each chunk having exactly chunk_size elements, the compiler can often optimize the resulting code better than in the case of chunks.

See rchunks for a variant of this iterator that also returns the remainder as a smaller chunk, and chunks_exact for the same iterator but starting at the beginning of the slice.

# Panics

Panics if chunk_size is 0.

# Examples

let slice = ['l', 'o', 'r', 'e', 'm'];
let mut iter = slice.rchunks_exact(2);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &['e', 'm']);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &['o', 'r']);
assert!(iter.next().is_none());
assert_eq!(iter.remainder(), &['l']);

#### pub fn rchunks_exact_mut(&mut self, chunk_size: usize) -> RChunksExactMut<T>1.31.0[src]

Returns an iterator over chunk_size elements of the slice at a time, starting at the end of the slice.

The chunks are mutable slices, and do not overlap. If chunk_size does not divide the length of the slice, then the last up to chunk_size-1 elements will be omitted and can be retrieved from the into_remainder function of the iterator.

Due to each chunk having exactly chunk_size elements, the compiler can often optimize the resulting code better than in the case of chunks_mut.

See rchunks_mut for a variant of this iterator that also returns the remainder as a smaller chunk, and chunks_exact_mut for the same iterator but starting at the beginning of the slice.

# Panics

Panics if chunk_size is 0.

# Examples

let v = &mut [0, 0, 0, 0, 0];
let mut count = 1;

for chunk in v.rchunks_exact_mut(2) {
for elem in chunk.iter_mut() {
*elem += count;
}
count += 1;
}
assert_eq!(v, &[0, 2, 2, 1, 1]);

#### pub fn split_at(&self, mid: usize) -> (&[T], &[T])[src]

Divides one slice into two at an index.

The first will contain all indices from [0, mid) (excluding the index mid itself) and the second will contain all indices from [mid, len) (excluding the index len itself).

# Panics

Panics if mid > len.

# Examples

let v = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6];

{
let (left, right) = v.split_at(0);
assert!(left == []);
assert!(right == [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]);
}

{
let (left, right) = v.split_at(2);
assert!(left == [1, 2]);
assert!(right == [3, 4, 5, 6]);
}

{
let (left, right) = v.split_at(6);
assert!(left == [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]);
assert!(right == []);
}

#### pub fn split_at_mut(&mut self, mid: usize) -> (&mut [T], &mut [T])[src]

Divides one mutable slice into two at an index.

The first will contain all indices from [0, mid) (excluding the index mid itself) and the second will contain all indices from [mid, len) (excluding the index len itself).

# Panics

Panics if mid > len.

# Examples

let mut v = [1, 0, 3, 0, 5, 6];
// scoped to restrict the lifetime of the borrows
{
let (left, right) = v.split_at_mut(2);
assert!(left == [1, 0]);
assert!(right == [3, 0, 5, 6]);
left = 2;
right = 4;
}
assert!(v == [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6]);

#### pub fn split<F>(&self, pred: F) -> Split<T, F> where    F: FnMut(&T) -> bool, [src]

Returns an iterator over subslices separated by elements that match pred. The matched element is not contained in the subslices.

# Examples

let slice = [10, 40, 33, 20];
let mut iter = slice.split(|num| num % 3 == 0);

assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &[10, 40]);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &);
assert!(iter.next().is_none());

If the first element is matched, an empty slice will be the first item returned by the iterator. Similarly, if the last element in the slice is matched, an empty slice will be the last item returned by the iterator:

let slice = [10, 40, 33];
let mut iter = slice.split(|num| num % 3 == 0);

assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &[10, 40]);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &[]);
assert!(iter.next().is_none());

If two matched elements are directly adjacent, an empty slice will be present between them:

let slice = [10, 6, 33, 20];
let mut iter = slice.split(|num| num % 3 == 0);

assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &[]);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &);
assert!(iter.next().is_none());

#### pub fn split_mut<F>(&mut self, pred: F) -> SplitMut<T, F> where    F: FnMut(&T) -> bool, [src]

Returns an iterator over mutable subslices separated by elements that match pred. The matched element is not contained in the subslices.

# Examples

let mut v = [10, 40, 30, 20, 60, 50];

for group in v.split_mut(|num| *num % 3 == 0) {
group = 1;
}
assert_eq!(v, [1, 40, 30, 1, 60, 1]);

#### pub fn rsplit<F>(&self, pred: F) -> RSplit<T, F> where    F: FnMut(&T) -> bool, 1.27.0[src]

Returns an iterator over subslices separated by elements that match pred, starting at the end of the slice and working backwards. The matched element is not contained in the subslices.

# Examples

let slice = [11, 22, 33, 0, 44, 55];
let mut iter = slice.rsplit(|num| *num == 0);

assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &[44, 55]);
assert_eq!(iter.next().unwrap(), &[11, 22, 33]);
assert_eq!(iter.next(), None);

As with split(), if the first or last element is matched, an empty slice will be the first (or last) item returned by the iterator.

let v = &[0, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8];
let mut it = v.rsplit(|n| *n % 2 == 0);
assert_eq!(it.next().unwrap(), &[]);
assert_eq!(it.next().unwrap(), &[3, 5]);
assert_eq!(it.next().unwrap(), &[1, 1]);
assert_eq!(it.next().unwrap(), &[]);
assert_eq!(it.next(), None);

#### pub fn rsplit_mut<F>(&mut self, pred: F) -> RSplitMut<T, F> where    F: FnMut(&T) -> bool, 1.27.0[src]

Returns an iterator over mutable subslices separated by elements that match pred, starting at the end of the slice and working backwards. The matched element is not contained in the subslices.

# Examples

let mut v = [100, 400, 300, 200, 600, 500];

let mut count = 0;
for group in v.rsplit_mut(|num| *num % 3 == 0) {
count += 1;
group = count;
}
assert_eq!(v, [3, 400, 300, 2, 600, 1]);

#### pub fn splitn<F>(&self, n: usize, pred: F) -> SplitN<T, F> where    F: FnMut(&T) -> bool, [src]

Returns an iterator over subslices separated by elements that match pred, limited to returning at most n items. The matched element is not contained in the subslices.

The last element returned, if any, will contain the remainder of the slice.

# Examples

Print the slice split once by numbers divisible by 3 (i.e., [10, 40], [20, 60, 50]):

let v = [10, 40, 30, 20, 60, 50];

for group in v.splitn(2, |num| *num % 3 == 0) {
println!("{:?}", group);
}

#### pub fn splitn_mut<F>(&mut self, n: usize, pred: F) -> SplitNMut<T, F> where    F: FnMut(&T) -> bool, [src]

Returns an iterator over subslices separated by elements that match pred, limited to returning at most n items. The matched element is not contained in the subslices.

The last element returned, if any, will contain the remainder of the slice.

# Examples

let mut v = [10, 40, 30, 20, 60, 50];

for group in v.splitn_mut(2, |num| *num % 3 == 0) {
group = 1;
}
assert_eq!(v, [1, 40, 30, 1, 60, 50]);

#### pub fn rsplitn<F>(&self, n: usize, pred: F) -> RSplitN<T, F> where    F: FnMut(&T) -> bool, [src]

Returns an iterator over subslices separated by elements that match pred limited to returning at most n items. This starts at the end of the slice and works backwards. The matched element is not contained in the subslices.

The last element returned, if any, will contain the remainder of the slice.

# Examples

Print the slice split once, starting from the end, by numbers divisible by 3 (i.e., , [10, 40, 30, 20]):

let v = [10, 40, 30, 20, 60, 50];

for group in v.rsplitn(2, |num| *num % 3 == 0) {
println!("{:?}", group);
}

#### pub fn rsplitn_mut<F>(&mut self, n: usize, pred: F) -> RSplitNMut<T, F> where    F: FnMut(&T) -> bool, [src]

Returns an iterator over subslices separated by elements that match pred limited to returning at most n items. This starts at the end of the slice and works backwards. The matched element is not contained in the subslices.

The last element returned, if any, will contain the remainder of the slice.

# Examples

let mut s = [10, 40, 30, 20, 60, 50];

for group in s.rsplitn_mut(2, |num| *num % 3 == 0) {
group = 1;
}
assert_eq!(s, [1, 40, 30, 20, 60, 1]);

#### pub fn contains(&self, x: &T) -> bool where    T: PartialEq<T>, [src]

Returns true if the slice contains an element with the given value.

# Examples

let v = [10, 40, 30];
assert!(v.contains(&30));
assert!(!v.contains(&50));

If you do not have an &T, but just an &U such that T: Borrow<U> (e.g. String: Borrow<str>), you can use iter().any:

let v = [String::from("hello"), String::from("world")]; // slice of String
assert!(v.iter().any(|e| e == "hello")); // search with &str
assert!(!v.iter().any(|e| e == "hi"));

#### pub fn starts_with(&self, needle: &[T]) -> bool where    T: PartialEq<T>, [src]

Returns true if needle is a prefix of the slice.

# Examples

let v = [10, 40, 30];
assert!(v.starts_with(&));
assert!(v.starts_with(&[10, 40]));
assert!(!v.starts_with(&));
assert!(!v.starts_with(&[10, 50]));

Always returns true if needle is an empty slice:

let v = &[10, 40, 30];
assert!(v.starts_with(&[]));
let v: &[u8] = &[];
assert!(v.starts_with(&[]));

#### pub fn ends_with(&self, needle: &[T]) -> bool where    T: PartialEq<T>, [src]

Returns true if needle is a suffix of the slice.

# Examples

let v = [10, 40, 30];
assert!(v.ends_with(&));
assert!(v.ends_with(&[40, 30]));
assert!(!v.ends_with(&));
assert!(!v.ends_with(&[50, 30]));

Always returns true if needle is an empty slice:

let v = &[10, 40, 30];
assert!(v.ends_with(&[]));
let v: &[u8] = &[];
assert!(v.ends_with(&[]));

Binary searches this sorted slice for a given element.

If the value is found then Result::Ok is returned, containing the index of the matching element. If there are multiple matches, then any one of the matches could be returned. If the value is not found then Result::Err is returned, containing the index where a matching element could be inserted while maintaining sorted order.

# Examples

Looks up a series of four elements. The first is found, with a uniquely determined position; the second and third are not found; the fourth could match any position in [1, 4].

let s = [0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55];

assert_eq!(s.binary_search(&13),  Ok(9));
assert_eq!(s.binary_search(&4),   Err(7));
assert_eq!(s.binary_search(&100), Err(13));
let r = s.binary_search(&1);
assert!(match r { Ok(1..=4) => true, _ => false, });

If you want to insert an item to a sorted vector, while maintaining sort order:

let mut s = vec![0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55];
let num = 42;
let idx = s.binary_search(&num).unwrap_or_else(|x| x);
s.insert(idx, num);
assert_eq!(s, [0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 42, 55]);

#### pub fn binary_search_by<'a, F>(&'a self, f: F) -> Result<usize, usize> where    F: FnMut(&'a T) -> Ordering, [src]

Binary searches this sorted slice with a comparator function.

The comparator function should implement an order consistent with the sort order of the underlying slice, returning an order code that indicates whether its argument is Less, Equal or Greater the desired target.

If the value is found then Result::Ok is returned, containing the index of the matching element. If there are multiple matches, then any one of the matches could be returned. If the value is not found then Result::Err is returned, containing the index where a matching element could be inserted while maintaining sorted order.

# Examples

Looks up a series of four elements. The first is found, with a uniquely determined position; the second and third are not found; the fourth could match any position in [1, 4].

let s = [0, 1, 1, 1, 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13, 21, 34, 55];

let seek = 13;
assert_eq!(s.binary_search_by(|probe| probe.cmp(&seek)), Ok(9));
let seek = 4;
assert_eq!(s.binary_search_by(|probe| probe.cmp(&seek)), Err(7));
let seek = 100;
assert_eq!(s.binary_search_by(|probe| probe.cmp(&seek)), Err(13));
let seek = 1;
let r = s.binary_search_by(|probe| probe.cmp(&seek));
assert!(match r { Ok(1..=4) => true, _ => false, });

#### pub fn binary_search_by_key<'a, B, F>(    &'a self,     b: &B,     f: F) -> Result<usize, usize> where    B: Ord,    F: FnMut(&'a T) -> B, 1.10.0[src]

Binary searches this sorted slice with a key extraction function.

Assumes that the slice is sorted by the key, for instance with sort_by_key using the same key extraction function.

If the value is found then Result::Ok is returned, containing the index of the matching element. If there are multiple matches, then any one of the matches could be returned. If the value is not found then Result::Err is returned, containing the index where a matching element could be inserted while maintaining sorted order.

# Examples

Looks up a series of four elements in a slice of pairs sorted by their second elements. The first is found, with a uniquely determined position; the second and third are not found; the fourth could match any position in [1, 4].

let s = [(0, 0), (2, 1), (4, 1), (5, 1), (3, 1),
(1, 2), (2, 3), (4, 5), (5, 8), (3, 13),
(1, 21), (2, 34), (4, 55)];

assert_eq!(s.binary_search_by_key(&13, |&(a,b)| b),  Ok(9));
assert_eq!(s.binary_search_by_key(&4, |&(a,b)| b),   Err(7));
assert_eq!(s.binary_search_by_key(&100, |&(a,b)| b), Err(13));
let r = s.binary_search_by_key(&1, |&(a,b)| b);
assert!(match r { Ok(1..=4) => true, _ => false, });

#### pub fn sort_unstable(&mut self) where    T: Ord, 1.20.0[src]

Sorts the slice, but may not preserve the order of equal elements.

This sort is unstable (i.e., may reorder equal elements), in-place (i.e., does not allocate), and O(n log n) worst-case.

# Current implementation

The current algorithm is based on pattern-defeating quicksort by Orson Peters, which combines the fast average case of randomized quicksort with the fast worst case of heapsort, while achieving linear time on slices with certain patterns. It uses some randomization to avoid degenerate cases, but with a fixed seed to always provide deterministic behavior.

It is typically faster than stable sorting, except in a few special cases, e.g., when the slice consists of several concatenated sorted sequences.

# Examples

let mut v = [-5, 4, 1, -3, 2];

v.sort_unstable();
assert!(v == [-5, -3, 1, 2, 4]);

#### pub fn sort_unstable_by<F>(&mut self, compare: F) where    F: FnMut(&T, &T) -> Ordering, 1.20.0[src]

Sorts the slice with a comparator function, but may not preserve the order of equal elements.

This sort is unstable (i.e., may reorder equal elements), in-place (i.e., does not allocate), and O(n log n) worst-case.

The comparator function must define a total ordering for the elements in the slice. If the ordering is not total, the order of the elements is unspecified. An order is a total order if it is (for all a, b and c):

• total and antisymmetric: exactly one of a < b, a == b or a > b is true; and
• transitive, a < b and b < c implies a < c. The same must hold for both == and >.

For example, while f64 doesn't implement Ord because NaN != NaN, we can use partial_cmp as our sort function when we know the slice doesn't contain a NaN.

let mut floats = [5f64, 4.0, 1.0, 3.0, 2.0];
floats.sort_by(|a, b| a.partial_cmp(b).unwrap());
assert_eq!(floats, [1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0]);

# Current implementation

The current algorithm is based on pattern-defeating quicksort by Orson Peters, which combines the fast average case of randomized quicksort with the fast worst case of heapsort, while achieving linear time on slices with certain patterns. It uses some randomization to avoid degenerate cases, but with a fixed seed to always provide deterministic behavior.

It is typically faster than stable sorting, except in a few special cases, e.g., when the slice consists of several concatenated sorted sequences.

# Examples

let mut v = [5, 4, 1, 3, 2];
v.sort_unstable_by(|a, b| a.cmp(b));
assert!(v == [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]);

// reverse sorting
v.sort_unstable_by(|a, b| b.cmp(a));
assert!(v == [5, 4, 3, 2, 1]);

#### pub fn sort_unstable_by_key<K, F>(&mut self, f: F) where    F: FnMut(&T) -> K,    K: Ord, 1.20.0[src]

Sorts the slice with a key extraction function, but may not preserve the order of equal elements.

This sort is unstable (i.e., may reorder equal elements), in-place (i.e., does not allocate), and O(m n log(m n)) worst-case, where the key function is O(m).

# Current implementation

The current algorithm is based on pattern-defeating quicksort by Orson Peters, which combines the fast average case of randomized quicksort with the fast worst case of heapsort, while achieving linear time on slices with certain patterns. It uses some randomization to avoid degenerate cases, but with a fixed seed to always provide deterministic behavior.

Due to its key calling strategy, sort_unstable_by_key is likely to be slower than sort_by_cached_key in cases where the key function is expensive.

# Examples

let mut v = [-5i32, 4, 1, -3, 2];

v.sort_unstable_by_key(|k| k.abs());
assert!(v == [1, 2, -3, 4, -5]);

#### pub fn partition_at_index(    &mut self,     index: usize) -> (&mut [T], &mut T, &mut [T]) where    T: Ord, [src]

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (slice_partition_at_index)

Reorder the slice such that the element at index is at its final sorted position.

This reordering has the additional property that any value at position i < index will be less than or equal to any value at a position j > index. Additionally, this reordering is unstable (i.e. any number of equal elements may end up at position index), in-place (i.e. does not allocate), and O(n) worst-case. This function is also/ known as "kth element" in other libraries. It returns a triplet of the following values: all elements less than the one at the given index, the value at the given index, and all elements greater than the one at the given index.

# Current implementation

The current algorithm is based on the quickselect portion of the same quicksort algorithm used for sort_unstable.

# Panics

Panics when index >= len(), meaning it always panics on empty slices.

# Examples

#![feature(slice_partition_at_index)]

let mut v = [-5i32, 4, 1, -3, 2];

// Find the median
v.partition_at_index(2);

// We are only guaranteed the slice will be one of the following, based on the way we sort
assert!(v == [-3, -5, 1, 2, 4] ||
v == [-5, -3, 1, 2, 4] ||
v == [-3, -5, 1, 4, 2] ||
v == [-5, -3, 1, 4, 2]);

#### pub fn partition_at_index_by<F>(    &mut self,     index: usize,     compare: F) -> (&mut [T], &mut T, &mut [T]) where    F: FnMut(&T, &T) -> Ordering, [src]

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (slice_partition_at_index)

Reorder the slice with a comparator function such that the element at index is at its final sorted position.

This reordering has the additional property that any value at position i < index will be less than or equal to any value at a position j > index using the comparator function. Additionally, this reordering is unstable (i.e. any number of equal elements may end up at position index), in-place (i.e. does not allocate), and O(n) worst-case. This function is also known as "kth element" in other libraries. It returns a triplet of the following values: all elements less than the one at the given index, the value at the given index, and all elements greater than the one at the given index, using the provided comparator function.

# Current implementation

The current algorithm is based on the quickselect portion of the same quicksort algorithm used for sort_unstable.

# Panics

Panics when index >= len(), meaning it always panics on empty slices.

# Examples

#![feature(slice_partition_at_index)]

let mut v = [-5i32, 4, 1, -3, 2];

// Find the median as if the slice were sorted in descending order.
v.partition_at_index_by(2, |a, b| b.cmp(a));

// We are only guaranteed the slice will be one of the following, based on the way we sort
assert!(v == [2, 4, 1, -5, -3] ||
v == [2, 4, 1, -3, -5] ||
v == [4, 2, 1, -5, -3] ||
v == [4, 2, 1, -3, -5]);

#### pub fn partition_at_index_by_key<K, F>(    &mut self,     index: usize,     f: F) -> (&mut [T], &mut T, &mut [T]) where    F: FnMut(&T) -> K,    K: Ord, [src]

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (slice_partition_at_index)

Reorder the slice with a key extraction function such that the element at index is at its final sorted position.

This reordering has the additional property that any value at position i < index will be less than or equal to any value at a position j > index using the key extraction function. Additionally, this reordering is unstable (i.e. any number of equal elements may end up at position index), in-place (i.e. does not allocate), and O(n) worst-case. This function is also known as "kth element" in other libraries. It returns a triplet of the following values: all elements less than the one at the given index, the value at the given index, and all elements greater than the one at the given index, using the provided key extraction function.

# Current implementation

The current algorithm is based on the quickselect portion of the same quicksort algorithm used for sort_unstable.

# Panics

Panics when index >= len(), meaning it always panics on empty slices.

# Examples

#![feature(slice_partition_at_index)]

let mut v = [-5i32, 4, 1, -3, 2];

// Return the median as if the array were sorted according to absolute value.
v.partition_at_index_by_key(2, |a| a.abs());

// We are only guaranteed the slice will be one of the following, based on the way we sort
assert!(v == [1, 2, -3, 4, -5] ||
v == [1, 2, -3, -5, 4] ||
v == [2, 1, -3, 4, -5] ||
v == [2, 1, -3, -5, 4]);

#### pub fn partition_dedup(&mut self) -> (&mut [T], &mut [T]) where    T: PartialEq<T>, [src]

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (slice_partition_dedup)

Moves all consecutive repeated elements to the end of the slice according to the PartialEq trait implementation.

Returns two slices. The first contains no consecutive repeated elements. The second contains all the duplicates in no specified order.

If the slice is sorted, the first returned slice contains no duplicates.

# Examples

#![feature(slice_partition_dedup)]

let mut slice = [1, 2, 2, 3, 3, 2, 1, 1];

let (dedup, duplicates) = slice.partition_dedup();

assert_eq!(dedup, [1, 2, 3, 2, 1]);
assert_eq!(duplicates, [2, 3, 1]);

#### pub fn partition_dedup_by<F>(&mut self, same_bucket: F) -> (&mut [T], &mut [T]) where    F: FnMut(&mut T, &mut T) -> bool, [src]

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (slice_partition_dedup)

Moves all but the first of consecutive elements to the end of the slice satisfying a given equality relation.

Returns two slices. The first contains no consecutive repeated elements. The second contains all the duplicates in no specified order.

The same_bucket function is passed references to two elements from the slice and must determine if the elements compare equal. The elements are passed in opposite order from their order in the slice, so if same_bucket(a, b) returns true, a is moved at the end of the slice.

If the slice is sorted, the first returned slice contains no duplicates.

# Examples

#![feature(slice_partition_dedup)]

let mut slice = ["foo", "Foo", "BAZ", "Bar", "bar", "baz", "BAZ"];

let (dedup, duplicates) = slice.partition_dedup_by(|a, b| a.eq_ignore_ascii_case(b));

assert_eq!(dedup, ["foo", "BAZ", "Bar", "baz"]);
assert_eq!(duplicates, ["bar", "Foo", "BAZ"]);

#### pub fn partition_dedup_by_key<K, F>(&mut self, key: F) -> (&mut [T], &mut [T]) where    F: FnMut(&mut T) -> K,    K: PartialEq<K>, [src]

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (slice_partition_dedup)

Moves all but the first of consecutive elements to the end of the slice that resolve to the same key.

Returns two slices. The first contains no consecutive repeated elements. The second contains all the duplicates in no specified order.

If the slice is sorted, the first returned slice contains no duplicates.

# Examples

#![feature(slice_partition_dedup)]

let mut slice = [10, 20, 21, 30, 30, 20, 11, 13];

let (dedup, duplicates) = slice.partition_dedup_by_key(|i| *i / 10);

assert_eq!(dedup, [10, 20, 30, 20, 11]);
assert_eq!(duplicates, [21, 30, 13]);

#### pub fn rotate_left(&mut self, mid: usize)1.26.0[src]

Rotates the slice in-place such that the first mid elements of the slice move to the end while the last self.len() - mid elements move to the front. After calling rotate_left, the element previously at index mid will become the first element in the slice.

# Panics

This function will panic if mid is greater than the length of the slice. Note that mid == self.len() does not panic and is a no-op rotation.

# Complexity

Takes linear (in self.len()) time.

# Examples

let mut a = ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd', 'e', 'f'];
a.rotate_left(2);
assert_eq!(a, ['c', 'd', 'e', 'f', 'a', 'b']);

Rotating a subslice:

let mut a = ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd', 'e', 'f'];
a[1..5].rotate_left(1);
assert_eq!(a, ['a', 'c', 'd', 'e', 'b', 'f']);

#### pub fn rotate_right(&mut self, k: usize)1.26.0[src]

Rotates the slice in-place such that the first self.len() - k elements of the slice move to the end while the last k elements move to the front. After calling rotate_right, the element previously at index self.len() - k will become the first element in the slice.

# Panics

This function will panic if k is greater than the length of the slice. Note that k == self.len() does not panic and is a no-op rotation.

# Complexity

Takes linear (in self.len()) time.

# Examples

let mut a = ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd', 'e', 'f'];
a.rotate_right(2);
assert_eq!(a, ['e', 'f', 'a', 'b', 'c', 'd']);

Rotate a subslice:

let mut a = ['a', 'b', 'c', 'd', 'e', 'f'];
a[1..5].rotate_right(1);
assert_eq!(a, ['a', 'e', 'b', 'c', 'd', 'f']);

#### pub fn clone_from_slice(&mut self, src: &[T]) where    T: Clone, 1.7.0[src]

Copies the elements from src into self.

The length of src must be the same as self.

If src implements Copy, it can be more performant to use copy_from_slice.

# Panics

This function will panic if the two slices have different lengths.

# Examples

Cloning two elements from a slice into another:

let src = [1, 2, 3, 4];
let mut dst = [0, 0];

// Because the slices have to be the same length,
// we slice the source slice from four elements
// to two. It will panic if we don't do this.
dst.clone_from_slice(&src[2..]);

assert_eq!(src, [1, 2, 3, 4]);
assert_eq!(dst, [3, 4]);

Rust enforces that there can only be one mutable reference with no immutable references to a particular piece of data in a particular scope. Because of this, attempting to use clone_from_slice on a single slice will result in a compile failure:

let mut slice = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];

slice[..2].clone_from_slice(&slice[3..]); // compile fail!

To work around this, we can use split_at_mut to create two distinct sub-slices from a slice:

let mut slice = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];

{
let (left, right) = slice.split_at_mut(2);
left.clone_from_slice(&right[1..]);
}

assert_eq!(slice, [4, 5, 3, 4, 5]);

#### pub fn copy_from_slice(&mut self, src: &[T]) where    T: Copy, 1.9.0[src]

Copies all elements from src into self, using a memcpy.

The length of src must be the same as self.

If src does not implement Copy, use clone_from_slice.

# Panics

This function will panic if the two slices have different lengths.

# Examples

Copying two elements from a slice into another:

let src = [1, 2, 3, 4];
let mut dst = [0, 0];

// Because the slices have to be the same length,
// we slice the source slice from four elements
// to two. It will panic if we don't do this.
dst.copy_from_slice(&src[2..]);

assert_eq!(src, [1, 2, 3, 4]);
assert_eq!(dst, [3, 4]);

Rust enforces that there can only be one mutable reference with no immutable references to a particular piece of data in a particular scope. Because of this, attempting to use copy_from_slice on a single slice will result in a compile failure:

let mut slice = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];

slice[..2].copy_from_slice(&slice[3..]); // compile fail!

To work around this, we can use split_at_mut to create two distinct sub-slices from a slice:

let mut slice = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];

{
let (left, right) = slice.split_at_mut(2);
left.copy_from_slice(&right[1..]);
}

assert_eq!(slice, [4, 5, 3, 4, 5]);

#### pub fn copy_within<R>(&mut self, src: R, dest: usize) where    R: RangeBounds<usize>,    T: Copy, 1.37.0[src]

Copies elements from one part of the slice to another part of itself, using a memmove.

src is the range within self to copy from. dest is the starting index of the range within self to copy to, which will have the same length as src. The two ranges may overlap. The ends of the two ranges must be less than or equal to self.len().

# Panics

This function will panic if either range exceeds the end of the slice, or if the end of src is before the start.

# Examples

Copying four bytes within a slice:

let mut bytes = *b"Hello, World!";

bytes.copy_within(1..5, 8);

assert_eq!(&bytes, b"Hello, Wello!");

#### pub fn swap_with_slice(&mut self, other: &mut [T])1.27.0[src]

Swaps all elements in self with those in other.

The length of other must be the same as self.

# Panics

This function will panic if the two slices have different lengths.

# Example

Swapping two elements across slices:

let mut slice1 = [0, 0];
let mut slice2 = [1, 2, 3, 4];

slice1.swap_with_slice(&mut slice2[2..]);

assert_eq!(slice1, [3, 4]);
assert_eq!(slice2, [1, 2, 0, 0]);

Rust enforces that there can only be one mutable reference to a particular piece of data in a particular scope. Because of this, attempting to use swap_with_slice on a single slice will result in a compile failure:

let mut slice = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];
slice[..2].swap_with_slice(&mut slice[3..]); // compile fail!

To work around this, we can use split_at_mut to create two distinct mutable sub-slices from a slice:

let mut slice = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5];

{
let (left, right) = slice.split_at_mut(2);
left.swap_with_slice(&mut right[1..]);
}

assert_eq!(slice, [4, 5, 3, 1, 2]);

#### pub unsafe fn align_to<U>(&self) -> (&[T], &[U], &[T])1.30.0[src]

Transmute the slice to a slice of another type, ensuring alignment of the types is maintained.

This method splits the slice into three distinct slices: prefix, correctly aligned middle slice of a new type, and the suffix slice. The method may make the middle slice the greatest length possible for a given type and input slice, but only your algorithm's performance should depend on that, not its correctness. It is permissible for all of the input data to be returned as the prefix or suffix slice.

This method has no purpose when either input element T or output element U are zero-sized and will return the original slice without splitting anything.

# Safety

This method is essentially a transmute with respect to the elements in the returned middle slice, so all the usual caveats pertaining to transmute::<T, U> also apply here.

# Examples

Basic usage:

unsafe {
let bytes: [u8; 7] = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7];
let (prefix, shorts, suffix) = bytes.align_to::<u16>();
// less_efficient_algorithm_for_bytes(prefix);
// more_efficient_algorithm_for_aligned_shorts(shorts);
// less_efficient_algorithm_for_bytes(suffix);
}

#### pub unsafe fn align_to_mut<U>(&mut self) -> (&mut [T], &mut [U], &mut [T])1.30.0[src]

Transmute the slice to a slice of another type, ensuring alignment of the types is maintained.

This method splits the slice into three distinct slices: prefix, correctly aligned middle slice of a new type, and the suffix slice. The method may make the middle slice the greatest length possible for a given type and input slice, but only your algorithm's performance should depend on that, not its correctness. It is permissible for all of the input data to be returned as the prefix or suffix slice.

This method has no purpose when either input element T or output element U are zero-sized and will return the original slice without splitting anything.

# Safety

This method is essentially a transmute with respect to the elements in the returned middle slice, so all the usual caveats pertaining to transmute::<T, U> also apply here.

# Examples

Basic usage:

unsafe {
let mut bytes: [u8; 7] = [1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7];
let (prefix, shorts, suffix) = bytes.align_to_mut::<u16>();
// less_efficient_algorithm_for_bytes(prefix);
// more_efficient_algorithm_for_aligned_shorts(shorts);
// less_efficient_algorithm_for_bytes(suffix);
}

#### pub fn is_sorted(&self) -> bool where    T: PartialOrd<T>, [src]

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (is_sorted)

new API

Checks if the elements of this slice are sorted.

That is, for each element a and its following element b, a <= b must hold. If the slice yields exactly zero or one element, true is returned.

Note that if Self::Item is only PartialOrd, but not Ord, the above definition implies that this function returns false if any two consecutive items are not comparable.

# Examples

#![feature(is_sorted)]
let empty: [i32; 0] = [];

assert!([1, 2, 2, 9].is_sorted());
assert!(![1, 3, 2, 4].is_sorted());
assert!(.is_sorted());
assert!(empty.is_sorted());
assert!(![0.0, 1.0, std::f32::NAN].is_sorted());

#### pub fn is_sorted_by<F>(&self, compare: F) -> bool where    F: FnMut(&T, &T) -> Option<Ordering>, [src]

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (is_sorted)

new API

Checks if the elements of this slice are sorted using the given comparator function.

Instead of using PartialOrd::partial_cmp, this function uses the given compare function to determine the ordering of two elements. Apart from that, it's equivalent to is_sorted; see its documentation for more information.

#### pub fn is_sorted_by_key<F, K>(&self, f: F) -> bool where    F: FnMut(&T) -> K,    K: PartialOrd<K>, [src]

🔬 This is a nightly-only experimental API. (is_sorted)

new API

Checks if the elements of this slice are sorted using the given key extraction function.

Instead of comparing the slice's elements directly, this function compares the keys of the elements, as determined by f. Apart from that, it's equivalent to is_sorted; see its documentation for more information.

# Examples

#![feature(is_sorted)]

assert!(["c", "bb", "aaa"].is_sorted_by_key(|s| s.len()));
assert!(![-2i32, -1, 0, 3].is_sorted_by_key(|n| n.abs()));

#### pub fn is_ascii(&self) -> bool1.23.0[src]

Checks if all bytes in this slice are within the ASCII range.

#### pub fn eq_ignore_ascii_case(&self, other: &[u8]) -> bool1.23.0[src]

Checks that two slices are an ASCII case-insensitive match.

Same as to_ascii_lowercase(a) == to_ascii_lowercase(b), but without allocating and copying temporaries.

#### pub fn make_ascii_uppercase(&mut self)1.23.0[src]

Converts this slice to its ASCII upper case equivalent in-place.

ASCII letters 'a' to 'z' are mapped to 'A' to 'Z', but non-ASCII letters are unchanged.

To return a new uppercased value without modifying the existing one, use to_ascii_uppercase.

#### pub fn make_ascii_lowercase(&mut self)1.23.0[src]

Converts this slice to its ASCII lower case equivalent in-place.

ASCII letters 'A' to 'Z' are mapped to 'a' to 'z', but non-ASCII letters are unchanged.

To return a new lowercased value without modifying the existing one, use to_ascii_lowercase.

#### pub fn sort(&mut self) where    T: Ord, [src]

Sorts the slice.

This sort is stable (i.e., does not reorder equal elements) and O(n log n) worst-case.

When applicable, unstable sorting is preferred because it is generally faster than stable sorting and it doesn't allocate auxiliary memory. See sort_unstable.

# Current implementation

The current algorithm is an adaptive, iterative merge sort inspired by timsort. It is designed to be very fast in cases where the slice is nearly sorted, or consists of two or more sorted sequences concatenated one after another.

Also, it allocates temporary storage half the size of self, but for short slices a non-allocating insertion sort is used instead.

# Examples

let mut v = [-5, 4, 1, -3, 2];

v.sort();
assert!(v == [-5, -3, 1, 2, 4]);

#### pub fn sort_by<F>(&mut self, compare: F) where    F: FnMut(&T, &T) -> Ordering, [src]

Sorts the slice with a comparator function.

This sort is stable (i.e., does not reorder equal elements) and O(n log n) worst-case.

The comparator function must define a total ordering for the elements in the slice. If the ordering is not total, the order of the elements is unspecified. An order is a total order if it is (for all a, b and c):

• total and antisymmetric: exactly one of a < b, a == b or a > b is true, and
• transitive, a < b and b < c implies a < c. The same must hold for both == and >.

For example, while f64 doesn't implement Ord because NaN != NaN, we can use partial_cmp as our sort function when we know the slice doesn't contain a NaN.

let mut floats = [5f64, 4.0, 1.0, 3.0, 2.0];
floats.sort_by(|a, b| a.partial_cmp(b).unwrap());
assert_eq!(floats, [1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0]);

When applicable, unstable sorting is preferred because it is generally faster than stable sorting and it doesn't allocate auxiliary memory. See sort_unstable_by.

# Current implementation

The current algorithm is an adaptive, iterative merge sort inspired by timsort. It is designed to be very fast in cases where the slice is nearly sorted, or consists of two or more sorted sequences concatenated one after another.

Also, it allocates temporary storage half the size of self, but for short slices a non-allocating insertion sort is used instead.

# Examples

let mut v = [5, 4, 1, 3, 2];
v.sort_by(|a, b| a.cmp(b));
assert!(v == [1, 2, 3, 4, 5]);

// reverse sorting
v.sort_by(|a, b| b.cmp(a));
assert!(v == [5, 4, 3, 2, 1]);

#### pub fn sort_by_key<K, F>(&mut self, f: F) where    F: FnMut(&T) -> K,    K: Ord, 1.7.0[src]

Sorts the slice with a key extraction function.

This sort is stable (i.e., does not reorder equal elements) and O(m n log(m n)) worst-case, where the key function is O(m).

For expensive key functions (e.g. functions that are not simple property accesses or basic operations), sort_by_cached_key is likely to be significantly faster, as it does not recompute element keys.

When applicable, unstable sorting is preferred because it is generally faster than stable sorting and it doesn't allocate auxiliary memory. See sort_unstable_by_key.

# Current implementation

The current algorithm is an adaptive, iterative merge sort inspired by timsort. It is designed to be very fast in cases where the slice is nearly sorted, or consists of two or more sorted sequences concatenated one after another.

Also, it allocates temporary storage half the size of self, but for short slices a non-allocating insertion sort is used instead.

# Examples

let mut v = [-5i32, 4, 1, -3, 2];

v.sort_by_key(|k| k.abs());
assert!(v == [1, 2, -3, 4, -5]);

#### pub fn sort_by_cached_key<K, F>(&mut self, f: F) where    F: FnMut(&T) -> K,    K: Ord, 1.34.0[src]

Sorts the slice with a key extraction function.

During sorting, the key function is called only once per element.

This sort is stable (i.e., does not reorder equal elements) and O(m n + n log n) worst-case, where the key function is O(m).

For simple key functions (e.g., functions that are property accesses or basic operations), sort_by_key is likely to be faster.

# Current implementation

The current algorithm is based on pattern-defeating quicksort by Orson Peters, which combines the fast average case of randomized quicksort with the fast worst case of heapsort, while achieving linear time on slices with certain patterns. It uses some randomization to avoid degenerate cases, but with a fixed seed to always provide deterministic behavior.

In the worst case, the algorithm allocates temporary storage in a Vec<(K, usize)> the length of the slice.

# Examples

let mut v = [-5i32, 4, 32, -3, 2];

v.sort_by_cached_key(|k| k.to_string());
assert!(v == [-3, -5, 2, 32, 4]);

#### ⓘImportant traits for Vec<u8>### Important traits for Vec<u8> impl Write for Vec<u8>pub fn to_vec(&self) -> Vec<T> where    T: Clone, [src]

Copies self into a new Vec.

# Examples

let s = [10, 40, 30];
let x = s.to_vec();
// Here, s and x can be modified independently.

#### ⓘImportant traits for Vec<u8>### Important traits for Vec<u8> impl Write for Vec<u8>pub fn repeat(&self, n: usize) -> Vec<T> where    T: Copy, 1.40.0[src]

Creates a vector by repeating a slice n times.

# Panics

This function will panic if the capacity would overflow.

# Examples

Basic usage:

assert_eq!([1, 2].repeat(3), vec![1, 2, 1, 2, 1, 2]);

A panic upon overflow:

// this will panic at runtime
b"0123456789abcdef".repeat(usize::max_value());

#### ⓘImportant traits for &'_ [u8]### Important traits for &'_ [u8] impl<'_> Read for &'_ [u8]impl<'_> Write for &'_ mut [u8]pub fn concat<Item>(&self) -> <[T] as Concat<Item>>::Output where    Item: ?Sized,    [T]: Concat<Item>, [src]

Flattens a slice of T into a single value Self::Output.

# Examples

assert_eq!(["hello", "world"].concat(), "helloworld");
assert_eq!([[1, 2], [3, 4]].concat(), [1, 2, 3, 4]);

#### ⓘImportant traits for &'_ [u8]### Important traits for &'_ [u8] impl<'_> Read for &'_ [u8]impl<'_> Write for &'_ mut [u8]pub fn join<Separator>(    &self,     sep: Separator) -> <[T] as Join<Separator>>::Output where    [T]: Join<Separator>, 1.3.0[src]

Flattens a slice of T into a single value Self::Output, placing a given separator between each.

# Examples

assert_eq!(["hello", "world"].join(" "), "hello world");
assert_eq!([[1, 2], [3, 4]].join(&0), [1, 2, 0, 3, 4]);
assert_eq!([[1, 2], [3, 4]].join(&[0, 0][..]), [1, 2, 0, 0, 3, 4]);

#### ⓘImportant traits for &'_ [u8]### Important traits for &'_ [u8] impl<'_> Read for &'_ [u8]impl<'_> Write for &'_ mut [u8]pub fn connect<Separator>(    &self,     sep: Separator) -> <[T] as Join<Separator>>::Output where    [T]: Join<Separator>, [src]

Deprecated since 1.3.0:

renamed to join

Flattens a slice of T into a single value Self::Output, placing a given separator between each.

# Examples

assert_eq!(["hello", "world"].connect(" "), "hello world");
assert_eq!([[1, 2], [3, 4]].connect(&0), [1, 2, 0, 3, 4]);

#### ⓘImportant traits for Vec<u8>### Important traits for Vec<u8> impl Write for Vec<u8>pub fn to_ascii_uppercase(&self) -> Vec<u8>1.23.0[src]

Returns a vector containing a copy of this slice where each byte is mapped to its ASCII upper case equivalent.

ASCII letters 'a' to 'z' are mapped to 'A' to 'Z', but non-ASCII letters are unchanged.

To uppercase the value in-place, use make_ascii_uppercase.

#### ⓘImportant traits for Vec<u8>### Important traits for Vec<u8> impl Write for Vec<u8>pub fn to_ascii_lowercase(&self) -> Vec<u8>1.23.0[src]

Returns a vector containing a copy of this slice where each byte is mapped to its ASCII lower case equivalent.

ASCII letters 'A' to 'Z' are mapped to 'a' to 'z', but non-ASCII letters are unchanged.

To lowercase the value in-place, use make_ascii_lowercase.

## Trait Implementations

### impl<T> Default for Vec<T>[src]

#### ⓘImportant traits for Vec<u8>### Important traits for Vec<u8> impl Write for Vec<u8>fn default() -> Vec<T>[src]

Creates an empty Vec<T>.

### impl<T> Deref for Vec<T>[src]

#### type Target = [T]

The resulting type after dereferencing.

### impl<'a, T> Extend<&'a T> for Vec<T> where    T: 'a + Copy, 1.2.0[src]

Extend implementation that copies elements out of references before pushing them onto the Vec.

This implementation is specialized for slice iterators, where it uses copy_from_slice to append the entire slice at once.

### impl From<CString> for Vec<u8>1.7.0[src]

#### ⓘImportant traits for Vec<u8>### Important traits for Vec<u8> impl Write for Vec<u8>fn from(s: CString) -> Vec<u8>[src]

Converts a CString into a Vec<u8>.

The conversion consumes the CString, and removes the terminating NUL byte.

### impl From<String> for Vec<u8>1.14.0[src]

#### ⓘImportant traits for Vec<u8>### Important traits for Vec<u8> impl Write for Vec<u8>fn from(string: String) -> Vec<u8>[src]

Converts the given String to a vector Vec that holds values of type u8.

# Examples

Basic usage:

let s1 = String::from("hello world");
let v1 = Vec::from(s1);

for b in v1 {
println!("{}", b);
}

### impl<T> From<VecDeque<T>> for Vec<T>1.10.0[src]

#### ⓘImportant traits for Vec<u8>### Important traits for Vec<u8> impl Write for Vec<u8>fn from(other: VecDeque<T>) -> Vec<T>[src]

Turn a VecDeque<T> into a Vec<T>.

This never needs to re-allocate, but does need to do O(n) data movement if the circular buffer doesn't happen to be at the beginning of the allocation.

# Examples

use std::collections::VecDeque;

// This one is O(1).
let deque: VecDeque<_> = (1..5).collect();
let ptr = deque.as_slices().0.as_ptr();
let vec = Vec::from(deque);
assert_eq!(vec, [1, 2, 3, 4]);
assert_eq!(vec.as_ptr(), ptr);

// This one needs data rearranging.
let mut deque: VecDeque<_> = (1..5).collect();
deque.push_front(9);
deque.push_front(8);
let ptr = deque.as_slices().1.as_ptr();
let vec = Vec::from(deque);
assert_eq!(vec, [8, 9, 1, 2, 3, 4]);
assert_eq!(vec.as_ptr(), ptr);

### impl<T, I> Index<I> for Vec<T> where    I: SliceIndex<[T]>, [src]

#### type Output = <I as SliceIndex<[T]>>::Output

The returned type after indexing.

### impl<'a, T> IntoIterator for &'a mut Vec<T>[src]

#### type Item = &'a mut T

The type of the elements being iterated over.

#### type IntoIter = IterMut<'a, T>

Which kind of iterator are we turning this into?

### impl<T> IntoIterator for Vec<T>[src]

#### type Item = T

The type of the elements being iterated over.

#### type IntoIter = IntoIter<T>

Which kind of iterator are we turning this into?

#### fn into_iter(self) -> IntoIter<T>[src]

Creates a consuming iterator, that is, one that moves each value out of the vector (from start to end). The vector cannot be used after calling this.

# Examples

let v = vec!["a".to_string(), "b".to_string()];
for s in v.into_iter() {
// s has type String, not &String
println!("{}", s);
}

### impl<'a, T> IntoIterator for &'a Vec<T>[src]

#### type Item = &'a T

The type of the elements being iterated over.

#### type IntoIter = Iter<'a, T>

Which kind of iterator are we turning this into?

### impl<T> Ord for Vec<T> where    T: Ord, [src]

Implements ordering of vectors, lexicographically.

### impl<T> PartialOrd<Vec<T>> for Vec<T> where    T: PartialOrd<T>, [src]

Implements comparison of vectors, lexicographically.

### impl Write for Vec<u8>[src]

Write is implemented for Vec<u8> by appending to the vector. The vector will grow as needed.

### impl<Z> Zeroize for Vec<Z> where    Z: Zeroize, [src]

#### fn zeroize(&mut self)[src]

"Best effort" zeroization for Vec.

Ensures the entire capacity of the Vec is zeroed. Cannot ensure that previous reallocations did not leave values on the heap.

## Blanket Implementations

### impl<I> IntoIterator for I where    I: Iterator, [src]

#### type Item = <I as Iterator>::Item

The type of the elements being iterated over.

#### type IntoIter = I

Which kind of iterator are we turning this into?

### impl<T> Same<T> for T

#### type Output = T

Should always be Self

### impl<T> ToOwned for T where    T: Clone, [src]

#### type Owned = T

The resulting type after obtaining ownership.

### impl<T, U> TryFrom<U> for T where    U: Into<T>, [src]

#### type Error = !

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.

### impl<T, U> TryInto<U> for T where    U: TryFrom<T>, [src]

#### type Error = <U as TryFrom<T>>::Error

The type returned in the event of a conversion error.